Vampire Lore


Becoming a Vampire:

  1. The 7th son of the 7th son
  2. A cat jumping over corpse turns the corpse into a vamp (England); in Romania the same but the cure (antidote) is to put a piece of iron into the corpse's hand or place Hawthorn in the coffin
  3. A baby born with teeth or a caul or stillborn
  4. A dead body that has been reflected in a mirror
  5. Someone bitten by a vamp
  6. Suicides
  7. People who die suddenly & violently
  8. Those who do not receive proper burial
  9. People who have eaten he meat of a sheep that has been killed by a wolf
  10. Having red hair (Greece only)
  11. By renouncing the Eastern Orthodox religion (which is why the peasants may have thought Vlad was a vampire)
  12. By being excommunicated by the Greek Orthodox church
  13. Wild dogs jumping over a corpse
  14. Never leave any KNOT in the coffin -- a tie or a rope since it was thought to prevent the corpse's decay and to disturb the dead person's ability to make the transition into another life


The art of Fooling and Controlling Vampires (and the dead in general)
These are methods of turning away evil:
  1. Take the most tortuous route home from the cemetery in order discourage ghosts from following you
  2. Wear unfamiliar clothing (disguise)
  3. Wear grotesque makeup (disguise)
  4. Impaling the corpse or breaking its legs and severing its head (so it can't see and can't run ... that ought to do it!). A severed head was sometimes placed underneath the buttocks to prevent the corpse from putting its head back on
  5. Pelt the corpse with pebbles as it's being lowered into the grave
  6. Spread Poppy seeds on the path from the graveyard ... vampires MUST stop and pick up everyone and if you spread enough of them, by the time they have picked them up it's dawn and time to go back to bed (the graveyard)
  7. To detect them ... take a young virginal boy or girl and put them on a horse of a SOLID colour all white, all black, all brown) and the horse must also be virgin and never have stumbled. If the horse refuses to pass over a grave then you know a vampire lies there
  8. The wooden stake of impalement HAS TO BE made of rosebush, ash or an asp tree. Sometimes a red hot iron will do. The stake used to "kill" a vampire can also be of hawthorn or dogwood, both trees associated with the holiness of Christ. Cold iron is also useful (a carry-over from pre-Christian times), although I can appreciate the effect of HOT iron on human tissue!
  9. All vampires have to be buried face down after they have been killed
  10. In Romania, young women seeking to avoid giving birth to a vampire should eat salt (for its purifying powers)
  11. Crossing the arms of a corpse
  12. Burying the corpse with a sickle around its neck so if it sat up it would decapitate itself
  13. Putting a thorn under the tongue to prevent it from sucking blood
  14. Inserting a needle into the navel
  15. Placing the heart on the head
  16. Cutting off the feet
  17. Cutting the knee ligaments (very common)
  18. Staking can be accompanied by driving a sacred nail into the head
  19. There are several other methods of arranging the vampirism-prone corpse that you didn't mention, and I don't have a list handy. If I recall, they involve several nails driven into various parts of the body, filling the mouth with various purifying substances (often accompanied by decapitation), and soaking the corpse in or rubbing it with various purifying substances. Purifying substances could include salt, holy water, garlic, other spices, ashes (especially from holy woods), and lemon juice. Burning and boiling, frequently combined with other techniques, were also prescribed.


    • Rome interpreted corporeal incorruptibility as a reward for sanctity
    • Dhampirs are sons of vampires in Yugoslavia & the Balkans who (for a fee) would chase down their alleged vampire fathers and kill them for local villagers
    • Black is the European colour or mourning but it is white in China and yellow in ancient Egypt
    • Vampire bats are found ONLY in Mexico and Central and South America; usually feed on cattle but have attacked humans. Vampire bats were discovered and so named by CORTES in Mexico. The bat is the only mammal that can fly. Real name of the vampire bat is DESMODUS ROTUNDUS. These little guys bite and lick the spot where the blood comes out; they do not (as it were) "suck."
    • Many Vampires prey (at least at first) on family & loved ones usually violating a taboo
    • Thanatos/eros: Psychiatry says vampirism is a kind of expression of taboos of incest, necrophilia and oral and sadistic sexual desires
    • Polish & Russian vamps are out from noon to midnight and in Russia a vamp is the child of a witch and a werewolf
    • In Greece Vampires have blues eyes; in Poland they have sharp, pointed tongues
    • Vampires are said to have hairy palms (just as Wer-wolves)
    • Tradition says that GARLIC sprang up where Satan placed his left foot as he departed from Paradise after the temptation and the Fall
    • In ancient Babylonia and Assyria it was thought that blood baths would cure leprosy
    • Coffins were thought to be used originally to keep animals from digging up corpses
    • In vampire fiction we get the occurrence of the "native earth" theory of behaviour (ie) a vampire must return to the earth for certain periods of time.
    • In Southern France & Greece all revenants must remain in their graves on SATURDAYS (always a good day for vampire killing) and in Serbo-Croatia this is extended so that anyone born on a Saturday can kill a vampire but the vampire cannot kill them. Pursuant to this, there is a saying in Yugoslavia among Moslem gypsies that "a vampire can be seen by a twin brother or sister born on a Saturday, who wear their drawers and shirts inside out."

    • In Serbia, vampires can turn themselves into butterflies

    • Dogs are the hereditary enemies of vampires, probably because members of the dog family eviscerate their prey first if they can -- especially the heart, liver and lungs

    • The big vampire mania in Europe is from 1723-1735

    • It was thought that the devil came to take the skin off the corpse & inflated it


    • Dr Herbert Mayo (1851) On the Truths Contained in Popular Superstitions offered all kinds of explanations for vamps. Mayo is excerpted in Clive Leatherdale's The Origins Of Dracula which Stoker probably read.

    • Sometimes homeless beggars would sleep in tombs and sneak out a night in search of food
    • There was No embalming until 100 years ago, hence comatose people were often buried alive. When dug up (to put another corpse in the grave)the corpses showed "signs" of life. Taphophobia is the fear of being buried alive; there was a mass hysteria about this in the 19th century and many people were buried with devices and gadgets such as pipes which ran from the coffin up to fresh air on the surface.
    • Dr Frantz Hartmann in his book Buried Alive (1895) recorded 700 incidents of premature burial in his neighbourhood alone.
    • The Vampiric Taboo comes from Leviticus (XVII:14): "For it [blood] is the life of all flesh, the blood of it is the life thereof, therefore I said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not eat the blood of no manner of flesh ... whosoever eatheth it shall be cut off..."

    • Necrophiliacs were thought to be vampires

    • Aristocrat's disease (teeth & gum disease & photosensitivity as well as hair and nails glowing fluorescently) is called Porphyria

    • Necrophagism (eating corpses)
    • Necrosadism (mutilation of corpses to induce sexual excitement)
    • Darwin thought that vampire bats (only one variety ... some eat fruit, some eat insects, some eat fruits) soothed their victims by fanning their wings
    • See: Paul Barber's Vampires, Burial and Death: Folklore and Reality New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. [GR/830/B35/1988].
    • In most cultures decomposition is seen as the key to pacification of the corpse (ie making it inert)

    • (Male) corpses have erections caused from bloating and decomposition of sexual organs

    • Corpses can swell up to twice their size

    • Corpses can grow new skin; pathologists call this "skin slippage"

    • Decaying bodies produce great amounts of flammable gas (especially methane) hence when they burn they tend to "blow up" in a spectacular fashion.
    • Burning bodies can glow when burned because of a luminous bacteria (ie photobacterium fischeri) can cause the glow
    • Cremation was NOT an effective way to dispose of a corpse because any part of the body touching the ground didn't burn, and even if burning "enhancers" such as animal fat or butter (we would use gasoline today) are thrown on to the corpse ... only the outside gets charred
      Putrefaction leads to
    1. Greenish colour over internals & abdomen
    2. Discolouration (pink or dark)
    3. Blisters
    4. Escape of blood-stained fluid through nostrils & mouth (as the body swells, pressure is put on the lungs & blood and other liquids are forced out the mouth & nose)
    5. Abdominal distension
    6. Maggots
    7. Shedding of nails (and extension due to recession of skin lines) & loss of hair
    8. Face unrecognizable (12-18 hours after death the methane gas builds-up so that facial features no longer recognizable)
    9. Bursting open of abdomen and thoracic cavities
    10. "Skin slippage" ... skin underneath is not "new" skin but simply raw-looking


    • Why Garlic? In Medieval times doctors thought that plague was caused by bad air (corruption of the air) hence "to fight fire with fire" as it were, garlic was used to fight disease -- along with other strong smelling things like incense, perfume, cow dung, human faeces and Juniper

    A Vampire By Any Other Name

    • Africa: The Loango and in Ashantiland the Asanbosam
    • Assyria: Ekimmu (EKIMINU) a malignant spirit (half ghost half vampire) haunts its victims and sometimes attacks them; caused by no proper burial
    • Babylonia: Lilitu (in Hebrew Lilith or Adam's first wife in Talmudic lore); she becomes a succubus attacked infants and children and bringing erotic dreams to me. The Talmud itslef does not mention preying on children; that was added later.
    • Brazil: The Jaracaca which attacks only young mothers with babies
    • Bulgaria: The Obour has only 1 nostril and a pointed tongue
    • China: The P'O which has greenish white hair, claws cruel eyes. Caused by a cat jumping over a corpse. Vampires take possession of a human body but unlike European ones, Chinese vampires have never been human at any time; they are called Ch'Iang Shih (sometimes Ch'Iing Shuh)
    • Crete: Vampires are called Katalkanas
    • Denmark: Mara is a female vampire
    • Greece: Vrukalakos and anyone with red hair is suspect; also a Lamia which has the head & breast of female & the body of serpent. It has the same function as Lilith. Some sources say in Greece Lamia is not a vampire but a ghoul ... as is a Empusa.
    • The Roman version of Lamia is Strix (the plural is Strigae) and in Italian it's Strega (which now means "witch").
    • Germany: The Alp which sucks blood and the nipples of victims.
      There is also the Mara or Mora which is a succubus who straddles sleeping men causing horrible nightmares
    • Hungary: Pamgri or Vampir
    • Ireland: The Druids spoke of Dearg-Duls
    • India: The Baitol which is a vampire but it possesses corpses
    • Malaysia: The Langsuitis a woman who wears a gown, has long nails and long jet black hair to her ankles and she has a hole the back of her neck which she uses to suck the blood from children. To cure her, stuff the hole with as much hair as it will hold and cut her nails.

    • You become a Langsuir if you die in childbirth. To prevent her from becoming one, stuff the mouth with glass beads, put eggs under her armpits and pierce her hands with needles. Can also become one from shock on hearing of the death of a child
    • Malaysia: The Pennanggalan (sometimes spelled Penaggalan or known as Pontianak -- an old repulsive hag who can a separate her head from her body and fly around with her entrails flapping around. There is another critter called a Polong which is the size of a joint on little finger, hence a kinds of dwarfish vampire!

    • Portugal: The Bruxsa is actually a cucubuth (a critter that is both a Wer-Wolf and a Vampire) that attacks travellers & their own (the Bruxsa's own) children
    • Romania: The Nosferat is a stillborn illegitimate child of two people who are similarly illegitimate. It can shape change (any variety of animals and can be male or female). When it appears to a bridegroom it brings sterility
    • Russia: Viesczy are said to gnaw their own hands & feet while in its grave in the daytime; also Upir and Oupyr. Here, a vampire is the child of a witch and a werewolf.
    • Scotland: Baobham are groups of beautiful girls who drain blood from victims


    Vampire Epedemics:

    • For 400 years after Vlad the story of Vlad was a "best seller" in print especially in the German language but Dracula stories also abounded in Hungarian, Romanian Greek and Turkish
    • Eastern Europe was aflame with a vampire scare at the beginning of the 18th century: Chios (1708); Belgrade (1725 and 1732); Serbia (1825); Hungary (1832); Danzig (1855)
    • The early vampire craze kicked off with The Story of Peter Pogojowitz in 1725; he was just a peasant who died and was thought to be a vampire so they had to exhume the body
    • In France in 1746, Dom Agustin Calmet published a treatise on ghosts and vampires (he was a Benedictine Monk)

    Personalities: (In)Famous Vampires

    Excerpted and abridged from Montahue Summer's The vampire, His Kith & Kin which is just an excellent read!

    Gilles de Rais (aka de Retz):

    He was a French national hero fighting with Joan Of Arc. After the death of Joan and the crowing of the Dauphin, he went weird and tortured children (mainly boys ... 200 of them). He would order his servants to stab them in the jugular vein so their blood would shoot all over him and whilst they bled to death he'd masturbate over them. He was accused of sitting on the bowels of a boy and drinking his blood while the boy lay bleeding to death and accused of sodomy. Brought to trial in 1440 and written about in Joris Karl Huysmans' novel La-Bas (1891)

    Vlad the Impaler:

    • Vlad's father is Vlad Dracul (Vlad the devil) and was made a member of The Order Of the Dragon in Nuremburg in February 1431. Membership in the order meant an oath to fight the Turks (forever) and yet the whole Dracula family flirted with the Turks as well as killing them. Vlad father killed December 1447 by henchmen of John Hunyadi .. a lose relative NOT prone to flirting with the Turks
    • Prince Vlad Tepes the 5th of Wallachia (1431-1476 ... age 46 he was beheaded) born in the Translyvanian town of Sighisoara, otherwise known as Schassburg
    • Nickname Vlad; other name "Voevod" or warlord or warrior prince (as opposed to a prince who rules by inherited right)
    • Tepes (pronounced tzae-paesh) means "spike" in Romanian; (I am grateful to Ioana Timariu for this amendment).
    • Vlad signed his name "DRAKULYA" (seems he couldn't spell!!!)
    • the city of Bistrita is starting point for anyone interested in following this story by real travel
    • in 1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks (during Crusades) Vlad is Greek Orthodox (but also ties to Rome)
    • Dracula's actual castle is near Arefu but there is apparently a second one near Poenari
    • Of all the variant sources of Dracula the German ones (says Summers) are the most reliable in part because they are the oldest (15th century). The oldest MS was written in low German in 1462 (during Vlad's own life). They were written by a Saxon mon named Brother Jacob who fled the country for his life. There is also a Russian MS written in 2486 and the general truth of these MSS is confirmed by Papal documents sent to Rome in 1475
    • The Vatican (apparently) still has some secret reports on Vlad sent to Pope Pius II in Rome
    • Dracule was also chronicled by the following chronicles:
      • Chalkokondyles
      • Sphrantzes
      • Doukos
      • Critoboulos of Imbros
    • There is some etymological confusion over the meaning of Dracula.
      • Little devil
      • Son of the devil
      • Dragon
    • What is now Romania used to be 3 states: Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia ... Transylvania has always been considered a somewhat separate cultural entity because it is tucked behind the Carpathian Alps. All were under the Roman empire at one time.
    • The Dracule stories or episodes fall into 9 (these 9 are the only ones that are common in all 3 MSS variants -- German, Slavonic & Romanian). Initial versions and [] are composites based basically on the Russian version. {} is the Romanian variants.
    1. Foreign Ambassadors
      When visiting ambassadors from Turkey neglected to remove their turbans in his presence[**said they could not because it was their custom always to wear them**] he had their turbans nailed to their heads with small iron nails and sent them home that way
    2. The Nobleman with the Keen Sense of Smell
      In the Russian story a servant gags at the stench of impaled bodies at an outdoor banquet Dracula is having. Dracula often dined amidst the dying people whose deaths he had ordered. Dracula has the complaining servant impaled a few feet above the rest so he won't smell anything

    3. Two Monks
      Two Roman Catholic monks were in Dracula's court where all kinds of people were impaled. Dracula separated the 2 monks and asked the first what he thought: the 1st monk said that Dracula had made martyrs of these people and was doing wrong. 2nd monk said they must have done something wrong and Dracula was punishing them justly. The 1st monk got impaled and the 2nd was given 50 ducats of gold and a free escort to the Hungarian border. A Greek monk was constantly belittling a poor Romanian priest over theological and other matters and belittling Romanians in general: Dracula invites both to his court (neither knows of the other. Dracula asked the Greek monk what he thought of him; the Greek monk was a sycophant and lied and was executed. A Romanian priest is asked same questions and says some people are unhappy under Vlad's reign cause their problems have increased and others (he says) are happy. Vlad is delighted at his honesty and promotes him the court confessor}
    4. Lazy Woman
      Once Dracula saw a man on the street with a dirty and ragged shirt. Dracula asked if he had a wife and the man says yes. Dracula sees that she is healthy and has plenty of flax and calls her lazy so he has both her hands cut off and has her body impaled {he procured a new wife for the man and showed her what happened to her lazy predecessor as a warning; the new wife was definitely not lazy}
    5. Dracula's Mistress
      Not in Russian versions. {Dracula's mistress sees Vlad is unhappy and tries to cheer him up by saying she is pregnant. He says don't lie (she is now afraid of being caught in the lie so tries to maintain she REALLY is ie how would he know. He opens her entrails to see and sees nothing and as she lies dying says see, I knew you could not be pregnant}.
    6. The Florentine Merchant
      A travelling merchant lost 160 ducats while staying at an Inn and went to Prince Dracula to explain. Dracula proclaimed that this was no way to treat a guest. He told the town either to find the thief or he'd destroy the whole town. He also demanded that the townspeople replace the ducats BUT that ONE EXTRA (ie: 161 ducats) be returned. The Foreigner reported the extra ducat to Dracula, thereby saving himself from certain impalement for Dracula was testing his and honesty. The thief was found, and, of course, impaled. Dracula asked the Merchant to leave his gold there.

    7. The Golden Cup
      Dracula had a golden cup placed near the fountain in a deserted square of Targoviste. The cup was left there for people to drink from. NO ONE ever dared steal it.
    8. Dracula's Treasure
      Buried in iron barrels at the bottom of a river and all the artisan who made and hid the treasure were killed
    9. Burning the Sick & the Poor
      Dracula invited beggars [the sick & the poor] to dinner and then locked the room from then outside and set in on fire claiming that he was "eliminating inferior stock." In another version he came in to talk to them while they were eating and asked if they wanted to be without any more cares in the world, by which they assumed he intended to give them gifts. The beggars were apparently lazy and openly said so and Dracula thought that because they lived off the sweat of others they were thieves... he invited all beggars in the land to free clothes and free food .. they got drunk and died in the fire.
    • Unfaithful wives and promiscuous women were punished by Dracule by cutting off their sex organs, skinning them alive and exposing them in public with their skin hanging from a nearby pole
    • Dracule is famous also for cutting off limbs, strangling, blinding, boiling and burning his victims
    • Dracule learned impaling from the Turks (he was captured by them in 1442 and led in chains to Adrianople where he was eventually released). Dracula's imprisonment by the Turks happened when he was no more than 15 years old and included physical and moral abuse. He had to swear an oath never to attack the Turks
    • He was also put in jail for 12 years by the King of Wallachia and after he died the new king let Dracula out provided he swore an oath to abandon Greek Orthodoxy and become Roman Catholic
    • Then there is a story that when Vlad was a boy he mutilated and impaled small birds (viz Renfield in Dracula)
    • Impalement victim had legs pulled by horses onto a stake ... which was rounded at the end and oiled so as NOT to cause immediate death
    • Dracula may or may not have been a cannibal (ie werewolf) but he most certainly forced others into it ... often forcing mothers to eat their babies
    • Dracule always left cadavers to rot
    • The (in)famous Vlad banquet amidst impaled people in concentric circles with those of highest rank at the centre was April 6, 1459 in the city of Brasov
    • Impalement could be top down, bottom up or through the navel
    • Most impalings done only between 1459 and 1461
    • In a battle in 1456 he impaled 20,000 Turks at once witnessed by Mohammed II outside Targoviste (Vlad's capital). Impalements were spread out over 2 square miles
    • Dracule was a (sort of) hero in Romania because he made the streets so "safe" that you could leave a purse in the middle of the road and no one would pick it up.
    • In 1458 Vlad builds the citadel at Bucharest
    • Vlad had an effeminate brother named "Radu the Handsome" his son was "Mihnea the bad"
    • Vlad actually reigned 3 times :
      1) briefly in 1448
      2) 1456- 1462 and 3) for 2 months in 1476
    • Vlad died in 1476 near Bucharest; only the Russian MS says that in a battle against the Turks Dracula had disguised himself as a Turk and as victory was near he got excited, ran to the top of a hill to see it all, was (understandably) mistaken for a Turk and killed by his own men
    • Some of Vlad's (equally as) brutal contemporaries were
      1) Spider King Louis XI (1423-1483)
      2) Ludovico Sforza "The Moor" (1452-1508)
      3) The Borgia Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503)
      4) Sigismondo Malatesta (1417-1468)
      5) Cezare Borgia (1476-1507)
    • Dracula spent more years in prison than he did on the throne
    • Dracule surrounded himself with bishops, abbots and priests BOTH Greek Orthodox and Roman
    • Vlad's wife commits suicide rather than be led into captivity by the Turks (this was during the 3rd campaign) ... she may have jumped prematurely being afraid Vlad would lose the battle
    • Vlad's tomb discovered accidentally in 1922 by a young Romanian student named Constantin C. Giurescu in the village of Strejnicu
    • Vlad's "tomb" opened in 1931 but it was empty except for 1) a badly deteriorated skeleton 2) a white porcelain crown (some accounts ie. Summers says a golden crown) with blue stones (like one which he had been given in his lifetime) 3) fragments of a faded red silk garment with a ring sewn on the sleeve 4) a necklace with the serpent motif on it (the serpent was associated with the order of the dragon) -- all of the contents of Dracula's grave "mysteriously disappeared" from the History Museum of Bucharest where they were deposited
    • somewhere hidden (so they say) are the famous "Dracula Rabbit skins" in which he rewarded peasants for saving his life by offering them land or $$. They took the land and he drew up documents for them on 5 rabbit skins, giving them 20,000 acres. It's said by the locals that the descendants of those peasants still have the skins hidden somewhere
    • on his 2nd campaign Dracula's son fell in battle but he(Dracule) was too hardened to pick him up or help him. And it turns out the boy lived and was raised by shepherds near Arefu. 12 years later the peasant returned Vlad's son (Drac was now in power) and Dracula rewards the peasant with huge tracts of lands

    For more on Vlad, go to Beverley Richardson's The Vampire's Vault

    Elizabeth of Bathory

    • Was born 1560 (Hungarian) married to Count Ferencz Nadasdy (who was always away at war) on May 8, 1575
    • Some say her mother was a lesbian; some say Elizabeth was too
    • Elizabeth murdered over 650 girls for her "beauty baths" which she "discovered" after she struck a servant one day and the servant's blood dropped on her hand. She felth that human blood seemed to make her skin soft and supple
    • Her manservant, Thurko, (sometimes written Thorko) introduced her to witchcraft.
    • She had no children for the first 10 years of her marriage but then had 3 boys and 1 girl
    • Her husband died in 1604; other accounts say in 1600
    • Castle Csejthe (her home in the Northwest of Hungary) gets turned into a torture chamber. Young girls were lured to the castle on pretence of $$$ and employment ("service) by accomplices (two "witches," Dorottya Szentes & Darvula)
    • One day a servant girl who was combing her hair accidentally pulled her hair and when Elizabeth slapped her some blood spurted on to her hand which she subsequently became convinced that the skin became more supple and smooth
    • Countess also used an iron maiden for extracting blood
    • One of her victims escaped and went to King Mathias II of Hungary who commissioned an inquiry. Her castle is raided on Dec 30, 1610
    • All were brought to trial in January/February 1611 in Bitcse
    • After the trial all her accomplices (including nurse Iilona Joo) were tortured, beheaded & then cremated (some accounts also say burned alive)
    • Iilona Joo and Dorottya Szentes also had their fingers torn out individually and were then burned alive
    • Johanes Vjvary testified that 37 girls were tortured and killed and Ilona Joo said 40 were tortured and killed
    • Because of her eminence she was imprisoned (rather than executed and sealed in a room by a stone mason in her castle. Food was slipped through a tiny slot. She died 3 years later
    • The Bathories were tied to Vlad's family (one Steven Bathory had helped Vlad out in some battles)
    • a film of this ... Countess Dracula (1971) starring Ingrid Pitt; Daughters Of Darkness (1970) and Ritual Of Blood (1973)
    • also she appears as one of the tales in Immoral Tales (1974) directed by Polish director Walerian Borowczyk

    Sergeant Francois Berterand

    • Was known as the vampire and was a soldier with a taste for graveyards and inhabitants. He was caught in in the act in 1849 and spent 1 year in prison for lycanthropy and necrophilia.

    Pre Dracula & Contemporary (1897) Vampire Literature

    1. William Of Newburgh and William of Malmsbury are 2 Anglo-Saxon vampire encounters and there is Anglo saxon poem called The Vampyre of the Fens
    2. Ossenfelder Der Vampire (1748)
    3. Burgher Lenore (1773; translated by Sir Walter Scott in 1796 or 1794).