From this primacy of energy as consciousness and virtue, we can begin to analyze the history of how the "wisdom was thrust away" in the West as Bateson describes. Starting with the foundation of music theory for western analysis Bateson comments:
This discovery hit the Pythagoreans squarely between the eyes and became a central secret (but why secret?), an esoteric tenet of their faith. Their religion had been founded on the discontinuity of the series of musical harmonics ( the demonstration that discontinuity was indeed real and was firmly founded upon rigorous deduction. And now they faced an impossibility proof. Deduction had said no. As I read the story, from then on it was inevitable to 'believe,' to 'see' and 'know' that a contradiction among the higher generalizations will always lead to mental chaos. From this point on, the idea of heresy, the notion that to be wrong in Epistemology could be lethal, was inevitable. All this sweat and tears ( and even blood ( was to be shed on quite abstract propositions whose Truth seemed to lie, in some sense, outside the human mind.215Rothstein makes the same point, "When they [the Greeks] discovered that numbers exist which are neither integers nor ratios of integers ( numbers which confounded all their notions of harmony and rationality ( they were so horrified that the discovery was kept secret. Alogon ( the unutterable ( these numbers were called..."216
As will be shown further below, since both rational numbers and rational logic were based on reified closed linear symbolic systems, then in order to maintain a "rational divine" (later religion of technology) universe the concept of transcendental nondualism had to be publicly repressed. It is not that Pythagoras needed the "right symbol" to understand the infinite transcendental, or irrational number, as it is called by the modern paradigm. The transcendental could be expressed in Greek culture with resonating harmonic proportions, but the concept of a smooth continuous rational universe could not be maintained with the linear discrete symbols of music-math and linear logic. Also the analysis of the ratios of ratios, or the zero beats that lead to the concept of all harmony coming from nothingness was unfathomable to Greek culture - "zero" was "not yet accepted."217
But importantly although Aristotle denied the existence of zero or the void and made that the norm of the post-Pythagorean Greek knowledge system, the Pythagorean way of knowing was based in the concept of the void as arising out of the transcendental "discontinuous gap" discovered by music analysis.218 As Peter Gorman says, "The dyad [or Diapason] was a symbol of infinity, hence Pythagoras must have known about its irrational [sic] properties."219 It can be surmised, and will be further verified from the below evidence, that while Pythagoras had knowledge of the spiritual power of multidimensional fundamental harmonics and understood the model that we have outlined as sound-current nondualism ( representing that knowledge was deeply problematic if not undesirable.220 In fact that spiritual harmonic knowledge was at an advanced esoteric level of initiation ( accessible to only those who were prepared to understand its power.221
The transcendental infinite ( first modeled in the West in Pythagorean music analysis, has, just as with the different tuning systems to deal with the repressed comma of Pythagoras, been a continued stickler for the western closed linear knowledge system. Using math to measure space and time, the goal of mapping continuity and smoothness was maintained, according to Rothstein, with integers and rational number ratios.
The transcendental (or western irrational number), though, continues to present a gap since there is no way to arrive at it from the rational numbers. Calculus was formed as a means to deal with this unreachable gap and at the beginning the gap in math was filled with infinitesimals (smaller than any number but greater than zero). Leibniz used this concept to model that, as Rothstein states, "summing an infinite number of zeros and reaching one half proves that the world could be formed from nothing."222 Euler had similarly created an equation of "something from nothing." But this concept, as with the Pythagorean principles, was deemed unsuitable to the means of the materialistic modern paradigm.
According to Rothstein infinitesimals were critiqued by Berkeley as trying to be on the level of the divine. Weierstrass created the derivative that became, as with the concept of beats, another order or class of mathematical information. The derivative is a concept of process, the limit is the never-ending goal, thus allowing the irrational, once again, into the rational universe as simply a different type of calculation and steering away from the transcendental consequences of analysis.223 Further exploration about this hidden kernal of ideology for western logic nondualism is done by scholar Dr. Steven M. Rosen in his "Concept of the Infinite and the Crisis of Modern Physics," for Speculations in Science and Technology.224
"The Greek word for ratio is logos," according to music analyst Jamie James.225 To further understand the direct translation from the hidden secret of linear closed music-math analysis (the repression of the infinite transcendental) and the development of the inaccurate, destructive knowledge system we can also examine the reflection of the latter directly in the structure of western language. Social systems theory analyst Bateson makes the point that "logic cannot model causal systems-paradox is generated when time is ignored....apart from language, there are no named classes and no-subject-predicate relations."226 In Loy's Yale text Nonduality: A Study of Comparative Philosophy he emphasizes "the isomorphism between our conceptual thought-processes and the subject-predicate structure of our language."227 Even more relevant to our context, music analyst Berendt elaborated on this rare insight:
For a long time western rationalists smiled at the notion that the sound of a single word [a vowel mantra], a single syllable should have a formative, shaping, creative power.... Aristotelian logic is based on the law of identity (A equals A), the law of contradiction (A cannot be equal to non-A) and on the law of the excluded third (A cannot be equal to A as well as to non-A). Beside it stands (and has stood since ancient times) what is known as paradoxical logic; which postulates that A and non-A can both be predicates of X....Our western concept of logic is strongly conditioned by western language. Weizsacker points out that 'the philosophies are closely related to the grammatical structures of the language.' The subject-predicate scheme of Aristotelian logic corresponds to the grammatical structure of the Greek declarative sentence... In his tome, Nietzsche noted that the 'astounding family likeness' seen in Western philosophies could be explained 'simple enough,' namely by their 'unconscious domination by the same grammatical functions.'Berendt emphasizes the difference in Asian languages from western languages (see below footnote) and the cultural analyst Noël Burch has examined the subsequent different symbolic interpretations of reality.229 Similarly the translator of ancient Greek, philosopher and mathematician Robert Schimdt, has shown that western logic was derived out of a broader language system of phasis ( which is the means by which objects spoke to the Greeks. Phasis is a multiple variant, or multiple-meaning, non-linear language system, just as the Plato dialogues are ( and they have subsequently not been correctly translated by logic according to Schimdt. Schimdt contends that logic is an incorrect simplification of phasis and that the western knowledge system has structural errors due to its dependency on logic.230 In contrast, in the Taoist Ch'an (or Zen) training enlightened language "can be interpreted 'perpendicularly,' or 'horizontally'.... like a prism or spectrum of multi-leveled meanings."231
Schimdt's position mirrors the findings of Kingsley, worth quoting at length:
...from the point of view of the history of philosophy we are presented with a very different picture of prePlatonic Pythagoreans from the usual stereotype of them as impractical dreamers, their minds fogged and obsessed with number mysticism, who had no 'clear idea of the value of empirical research' because all that interested them was discovering metaphysical principles....Pythagoreans could be far more practical than is usually supposed, sometimes deadly practical. For Plato this emphasis on practicality remained a powerful ideal; and yet, ideals apart, practically speaking it went against the grain of his temperament, his abilities, and against the conditions of the times in which he lived. With him and Aristotle the philosophical life as an integrated combination of practice and perception fell apart at the seams, and another ideal came to predominate instead: 'a new type of man, the unworldly and withdrawn student and scholar'.As with Berendt and Bateson, Rothstein has recognized that both true math and music theory, instead of the linear logic of the West, follow dialectical reasoning that he traces to the Pythagorean-roots of Plato. He quotes Socrates, "argument itself grasps with the power of dialectic" and then follows, "the inner life of the arts is in the world of Forms, in the processes of dialectic and its argument by metaphor."233 Bateson constructed his social systems theory, mirroring the phasis of ancient Greek, around the transcendental dialectical syllogism of metaphor-- "Grass dies; Men die; Men are grass" in response to the limited linear logical paradox "Epimenides was a Cretan who said, 'Cretans always lie.'" Although we can not attempt to elaborate on his investigation here, Bateson states in Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity that "syllogisms in grass must be the dominant mode of communicating interconnection of ideas...."234 Quantum theory has even called for a curved space-time non-Boolean "quantum logic" to be developed.235
Paralleling Bateson's Pythagorean social systems theory, the foundation of radical ecology chaos and complexity, or open systems theory, is also based from sound-current nondualism. As the radical ecologist and theoretical physicist Dr. Fritoj Capra describes in The Web of Life:
In the 1950s scientists began to actually build models of such binary networks, including some with little lamps flickering on and off at the nodes. To their great amazement they discovered that after a short time of random flickering, some ordered patterns would emerge in most networks. They would see waves of flickering pass through the network, or they would observe repeated cycles. Even though the initial state of the network was chosen at random, after a while those ordered patterns would emerge spontaneously, and it was that spontaneous emergence of order that became known as 'self-organization.'236From the seemingly random non-linear dialectical network of nodes, ordered patterns of meaning create harmonic structures of self-organization (i.e. spiro-vortex of the absolute void, the superstring, primary perception, negentropy, morphogenesis, cymatics, syllogisms of metaphor, and quantum logic).237 The infamous "butterfly effect" of chaos and complexity, where small changes have widespread and unpredictable systemic transformations, is simply a change in the fundamental node of the multidimensional pattern of harmonic oscillations.
The linear Cartesian phase-space dimensions of the musically and linguistically inaccurate closed clock-pendulum are now, Capra states, represented by, "a curve spiraling inward toward the center" ( an "attractor" or the Pythagorean law of growth.238 In the more complex multidimensional system the Pythagorean fundamental is called a "strange attractor." Predictions, by chaos theory, are no longer reductionist or of the modern paradigm. Capra remarks, "The new mathematics thus represents a shift from quantity to quality that is characteristic of systems thinking in general.... All trajectories starting within a certain region of phase space will lead sooner or later to the same attractor...The result is a dynamical picture of the entire system, called the 'phase portrait.'"239
Structures of nature are modeled by Pythagorean chaos and complexity with fractals being a prominent example. Like other chaos theorists, Martin Gardner describes the Pythagorean foundation behind fractals with "scaling noise" in Fractal Music, Hypercards and More: "If you play a recording of such a sound at a different speed, you have only to adjust the volume to make it sound exactly as before. By adjusting the spectral density we obtain an auto correlation of zero-in other words the same ratio that expands."240
As with the dialectical Pythagorean principles, the Taoist Tai Ch'i is also a symbol found in harmonic fractals and represents a system "governed by the law of logistic equations."241
A new mathematical treatise called Chaos Near Resonance further confirms the harmonic foundations of radical ecology open systems theory. The book is known as the first systematic exposition to understand and predict the global effect of resonances in multidimensional phase space. Or as the author György Hall states:
In molecular dynamics, resonances are known to give rise to chaotic patterns, multiple time scales, and apparent irreversibility in the transfer of energy between different oscillatory states of molecules. In engineering structures, interactions among resonant modes are responsible for most complicated dynamical phenomena, which again include energy transfer, multi-time-scale behavior, and chaotic motions. It is of great practical importance to understand the common mechanism behind these irregular features....242Even with new paradigm science revealing this ancient simple harmonic foundation of analysis, the deeply rooted inaccurate linear symbolic reification is just as strong today in the community of public intellectuals (or academics focused on structural change and exposing hegemonic ideologies). For instance, while grand theorist Slavoj Zizek has done a brilliant job clarifying dialectic thinking and crucially applying it to cultural analysis, he devoted a large part of a recent book to attacking rhythmic vibrations of energy. It is not that Zizek's theory is incorrect but only that he refuses to systematically take into account dialectic analysis beyond that of Hegel and Lacan-or beyond the limits of language as represented by the Freudian "primordially repressed."243 (see below for further description of primordially repressed) Zizek writes, "Hegel's point is not a new version of the yin/yang balance, but its exact opposite: 'truth' resides in the excess of exaggeration as such."244
What is missing from Zizek's understanding of Taoist qi gong is that the disease is considered the teacher for the cure, just as Zizek states, "the wound is healed by the spear that smote it." In other words, the dialectical process, accurately modeled by music theory and Taoist qi gong as will be shown, uses resonance-the exaggerated 'comma of Pythagoras' ( to achieve a new synthesis or a new form.
Zizek does recognize the meaning of music as "the pre-ontological texture of relations" when he refers to Plato's "chora" (i.e. chorus) from the Pythagorean dialogue Timaeus ( calling it "a kind of matrix-receptacle of all determinate forms, governed by its own contingent rules."245 Zizek also impressively traces the history of the ego or the modern Subject as corresponded with the development of opera. The end of the cultural dominance of opera coincides with the beginning of the modern paradigm and the hysterical subject as the object of psychoanalysis.246 In a chapter on music Zizek writes:
What is music at its most elementary? An act of supplication: a call to a figure of the big Other (beloved Lady, King, God...) to respond, not as the symbolic big Other, but in the real of his or her being (breaking his own rules by showing mercy; conferring her contingent love on us...). Music is thus an attempt to provoke the 'answer of the Real': to give rise in the Other to the 'miracle' of which Lacan speaks apropos of love, the miracle of the Other stretching his or her hand out to me. The historical changes in the status of 'big Other' (grosso modo, in what Hegel referred to as 'objective Spirit') thus directly concern music - perhaps, musical modernity designates the moment when music renounces the endeavour to provoke the answer of the Other.247One of the main cultural criticisms emphasized by Zizek is that the dialectical process of Hegel has been misunderstood as a new ideological Absolute Subject thus, as Berendt also points out, causing materialistic Marxism to be a distorted example of dialectical thought. Currently Zizek has pinpointed new age thinking as also being representative of a misguided Absolute Subject through the goal of a new balanced order of harmonious nature or "New Age Consciousness: the balanced circuit of Nature."248 But to correct Zizek, contrary to a reified Absolute Subject or big Other of nature, prominent analysis of qi gong ironically distinguishes dialectics from the common misunderstanding of Hegel ( the same error that Zizek has focused on clarifying:
The term synthesis in this context does not refer to polar opposites merging into a higher unity so as to be separately indistinguishable. (This form of synthesis was one of the goals of the dialectical process identified by the philosopher G.W. Hegel in his development of the Absolute). The method may be simply described as positing something as a thesis, then realizing that it can only be truly defined by taking other aspects or its opposite into account (antithesis), and finally arriving at the explicit recognition that the thesis and antithesis are related on a higher level of objective truth: synthesis). To understand ongoing process, which Chinese philosophy favors in the spirit of synthesis, we might consider the psychological concept of integration.249The true open systems ongoing process is modeled by sound-current nondualism in a manner that very specifically and simply clarifies the correct dialectical analysis that has been the focus of Zizek's investigation. As Zizek states, in dialectics first there is a thesis then an antithesis and as each is taken to their extreme logical conclusions both points negate each other by their mutual absurdity (called the dialectical reversal after the unity of opposites). Then that negation is affirmed as a new ground that both points now hold in common. This last formal step is naming or recognizing the first negation and called double negation or determinate reflection.
The point, not recognized in the dominant linear interpretation of dialectics, is that it is "the very lack [void] they have in common" which enables a new synthesis. Zizek writes, "Being reveals itself as Nothing at the very moment we try to grasp it in its pureness," and in reference to Hegel, "the subject is precisely that which is not substance." Zizek then states that the dialectic process is the same "nodal" problem again and again.250
Taking Zizek quite literally is more appropriate than he may ever realize for it is exactly the nodes of sound-current nondualism, by modeling different orders of information, that so precisely describe the dialectical process. To give some background information, the ratios of the fourth and the fifth are inverse opposites of the octave overtone ( both ratios cause a pull to resolve at the fundamental (and octave). When the ratios are explored at depth, the relation of their overtones is in dissonance. As Rothstein describes, "These two consonant tones (fifth and fundamental) have strongly dissonant overtones...[and] are the poles of tonal musical drama."251 It is this paradox of the poles that defines the description of thesis and antithesis in the dialectics of music theory. Erno Lendvai states,
By taking a V-I cadence the essential notes in the five chord bear an equal tritonic relationship according to their overtones. These essential notes are what cause the strong feeling to I. By inverting these notes the same tritone relationship is formed...The tritones' overtones act as subdominants [fourths] and as dominants [fifths] at the same time. These two positions neutralize and again, the tritone's relationship to the tonic [fundamental] is found, the two are acoustically interchangeable.252Jeans provides the following on the topic: "In the case of wider intervals such as C and F# [the tritone] there are no beats to be heard, either pleasant or unpleasant, but Helmholtz asserted that C and F# sound badly together because certain of their harmonics (e.g. g' and f'#) make unpleasant beats."253
The dialectical process is demonstrated through sound-current nondualism by the splitting of nothing (the zero beats root of the fundamental) into two parts: the fundamental and the octave, that freely resonate into the next multiple of the fifth, forming complimentary opposites to the fundamental. The fifth splits the octave and fundamental in half but also pulls to or, resolves to, the octave and fundamental.
As described by Lendvai and Rothstein, the free vibration of the fifth and its overtone become extreme opposites to the fundamental, via the overtone forming tritonic relations to the tonic. The tritone has traditionally been known as "the unutterable" or "diabulus in musica" and for Pythagoras it was the secret transcendental ratio from which the Pythagorean theorem was derived.254 Lendvai points out that the tritone overtones act as both the fourth and the fifth, the yin and yang, thereby unifying and neutralizing and modeling the dialectical reversal. In the scale the tritone (F#) is in between the subdominant or fourth (F) and the dominant or fifth (G).
As Jeans states, the tritone has no beats (zero) with the fundamental-thus forming the first negation. The analysis of the transcendental dyad at the tritone was the source for the concept of the void in Pythagorean doctrine.255 The tritone overtones then act as the original consonant fifth to the fundamental, as described by Lendvai, thus completing the double negation or determinate reflection for the new synthesis. This final synthesis is on-going, represented by the multidimensional resonance of the spiral of fifths (not the incorrect circle of fifths taught in the West) that is basic to sound-current nondualism( or again, the same beautiful "nodal problem" again and again.256
While Zizek, like Bateson, does not stray beyond the linear symbolic limit of the primordially repressed, he does describe that limit as being magical pre-verbal sound. The primordially repressed are myths that "have no 'original' in the language of intersubjective communication.'" He gives a very significant example,
...at the very moment when the reign of (symbolic) Law was being instituted (in what Moses was able to discern as the articulated Commandments), the crowd waiting below Mount Sinai apprehended only the continuous, non-articulated sound of the shofar [a trumpet-type horn]: the voice of the shofar is an irreducible supplement of the (written) Law.Zizek defines the shofar as "a kind of 'vanishing mediator' between the mythical direct vocal expression of the pre-symbolic life-substance and articulated speech...this strange sound...is strictly analogous to the unconscious act of establishing the difference between the unconscious vortex of drives and the field of Logos in Schelling."257
The primordial supplement mentioned by Zizek is also the same Lacanian surplus of desire for psychological analysis, the "excess of exaggeration" that is crucial to the dialectical process and the commodity fetish and surplus-value of Marxist theory. These key components of Zizek's analysis are equivalent to the comma of Pythagoras: The inherent resonance patterns of fundamental vibrations are what create the jouissance (Barthes' cathartic sublime enjoyment or energy) that is central to psychological desire and to ideological fanaticism as analyzed by Zizek.
Catharsis is originally a Pythagorean concept that was later used by Aristotle. Zizek also refers to Lacan's use of systems theory self-organization feedback to model the "return of the repressed." (whether the repressed is psychological or whether, as systems theory is used in political economy, the repressed is the "externalities" or social and environmental costs of linear development).258 This sublime linearly repressed energy is the heresy that Bateson describes as driving genocidal western linear epistemology. Both the symbol for Lacanian jouissance and for the symbol for the eternal Pythagorean law of growth are the Greek character phi.259
George Frazer's classic cultural analysis, The Golden Bough, that was a major influence on Freud, reflecting Zizek's mythic source, systematically documents the spiritual process of the "killing of the king" (sacrifice) that in the West became transferred to symbolic structures and reified into a closed linear knowledge system. The neuropsychologist Karl Pribram, who did pioneering brain and consciousness research and presented a open systems multidimensional resonance model of the mind, made a similar case: "...when, because of linguistic and cultural affluence, the means-ends reversal occurs, these languages begin to live lives of their own. Thus complexity is compounded and the original organization can easily be lost sight of."260
Zizek's rejection of social theories that critique the modern paradigm science as a repressive social institution no longer holds because of the formal accuracy of sound-current nondualism as arising out of the void. For his dismissal he refers to Heidegger, pointing out that,
...modern science at its most fundamental cannot be reduced to some limited ontic, 'socially conditioned' option (expressing the interests of a certain social group, etc.), but is rather, the [Lacanian] real of our historical moment, that which 'remains the same' in all possible ('progressive' and 'reactionary', 'technocratic' and 'ecological', 'patriarchal' and 'feminist') symbolic universes.261This is the same symbolic limit of the linear knowledge system that was emphasized by Bordwell and Flinn and to which sound-current nondualism gives a formal answer. Zizek again describes the limits,
When typical modernist artist speak about the Spiritual in painting (Kandinsky) or in music (Schoenberg), the 'spiritual' dimension they evoke points towards the 'spiritualization' (or, rather, 'spectralization') of Matter (colour and shape, sound) as such, outside its reference to Meaning...it dwells in a kind of intermediate spectral domain of what Schelling called geistige Körperlichkeit. From the Lacanian perspective, it is easy to identify this "spiritual corporeality' as materialized jouissance....262By claiming spiritualization or jouissance is outside the "reference to Meaning" Zizek falls into the same profound knowledge system trap and misses the crucial open systems connection modeling the Lacanian Real. As music analyst Rudolf Haase puts it, "in nature an important role is played by those quantities which in man can be transformed into qualities."263 Or as Zizek himself admits when analyzing Mozart's Don Giovanni, "the very external form of the Count's melody, its discord with its own content (the words sung), articulates the unconscious truth as yet inaccessible to him, to his psychological experience."264
Richard Leppert also, like Zizek, examines the subsequent effects of Plato's conceptual error and notes that Barthes conceived of jouissance as arising from the energy that music models. Leppert connects music, nature and politics through a historical poetics of western art, analyzing how socially the role of music, used for control, has also paradoxically undermined rationalism of the West. Leppert states,
If Barthes is right, the radical political act of making music for oneself ( in Victorian culture, this means especially women-involves a temporary reinscription of human 'totality' (mind with body at art) in the lived experience of 'humanities' second sex. This reinscription marks a refusal to abide by the terms of Cartesian dualism, the very foundation of the politics of gender, class, and racial difference-according to which certain men think and all women merely feel.265As with Fraser, Pribram, Zizek and others, symbolic transference of spiritual power to linear repressive thought and language is the problem traced by David F. Noble that has created the modern "religion of technology" and that we are now tracing further back to the root of its western origin. The inherent western genocidal mass killing of heretics and "primitive peoples," by considering them "pre-cognitive," is explained from a purely formal analysis, as we will further show.
Because of the deeply seated linear knowledge system, even the successful grand theorist Ken Wilber falls into the trap of advocating repressive western evolution based on a deterministic brain model that does not fully process the findings of Pribram's resonance brain analysis.266 Wilber subsequently incorrectly portrays indigenous cultures as having "preoperational cognition" and being inferior-i.e. claiming that their sustainable indigenous knowledge systems are merely haphazard occurrences reflecting their lack of western technology.267
The latest scholarly discussion by anthropologists of the relation between indigenous cultures and their values toward the environment is social scientist Kay Milton's "Nature and the Environment in Indigenous and Traditional Cultures," in Spirit of the Environment.268 The anthropological research shows that within the "oneness of nature" myth accorded by the West to indigenous peoples, what is actually accurate is that traditional cultures dominate their environments with defining values of mutual respect that do not usually view nature as a separate, objectified Other. Or as she states when cultures become more intensive,
Control makes trust redundant; indeed, it removes the autonomy which is part of the essence of trust. The non-human animals, once deprived of their freedom, come to be seen as lacking the capacity to act on their own behalf; they are seen less as persons and more as objects. It is easy to perceive, in the intensive farming methods of the industrial world, an extreme form of this perspective, in which the sensibilities of non-human animals are denied for the convenience of human routines and industrial systems.269The defining contrast to the West is the predominance of "a non-oppositional perspective [that] is consistent with an extensive pattern of economic activity which makes people familiar with every part of their environment."270
Ironically the central text of Tibetan Buddhism, a philosophy from which Wilber draws heavily, commonly called "The Book of the Dead," has its origins in the indigenous Bön culture and is literally translated as "Liberation by Hearing in the Intermediate State."271 Wilber criticizes social theorists for even "eulogizing" tribal cultures, when in fact currently still existing with distinct languages, 4,000 to 5,000 of the 6,000 human cultures are indigenous, but extremely threatened by corporate state elite attacks.272 (Exxon in Chad-Cameroon, Shell in Nigeria, Freeport in Indonesia, Texaco in Ecuador, Occidental Petroleum in Colombia, Unocal-Total in Burma).273
Without "romanticizing" the infinite complexity between and within each distinct language group, there is extensive evidence of indigenous cultures commonly interacting in a proportionally reciprocal or law of Pythagoras relationship with the environment as a conscious value system.274 The outstanding examples of unbalanced indigenous development patterns that Wilber incorrectly suggests are the norm, are due to particular breaks in those cultures from extreme and unpredictable influences, for example, as we have discussed, reification of linear symbolic systems, or dramatic climate change and colonialism.
Wilber does not recognize the fact that there has been a strong backlash against indigenous research, precisely because of its psychological threat to the linear western worldview. His use of Hawaii to explain his theory of holons is an inaccurate portrayal of genocidal U.S. imperialism-he actually claims the contrary occurred.275
Certainly neither Pribram and Schmidt or the global green movement that Wilber also supports, are advocating a "regressive" return to pre-industrial society as the immediate dominant fear arises, but instead the societal model of an open multidimensional process that continually reaffirms the universal common ground of the void. From systems theory music analysis, Leonard Meyer calls this societal model "fluctuating stasis" based on "steady-state" systems theory, a prediction of the same recommendation from radical ecologist open systems theorist Fritoj Capra.276
In Noise: The Political Economy of Music Jacques Attali presents a similar societal vision-predicted by and achieved through profound music practices that challenge the hegemony of linearly repressed symbolic abstraction of the western knowledge system.277 John E. Peck documents how in fact indigenous cultures already enact concepts of sophisticated open systems theory:
Given its sensitivity to time and place, indigenous knowledge would seem to be better situated to successfully adopt and apply a nonequilibrium perspective to ecosystem management than conventional scientific thinking, particularly in settings unfamiliar to western policy makers. Ecosystemic trajectories are so contextually contingent that an observer can hardly afford to entertain a theoretical framework built upon universal "objectivity" and reductionist "rationality."The great contribution of Wilber is that he also, as with sound-current nondualism, models an understanding of the absolute void as accessible in each state of information. He discusses many of the same western knowledge system errors ( but the crucial qualitative difference of modeling the void with music theory is that the long-established inaccurately linear and immoral, genocidal bias against indigenous cultures need not apply.
The music analyst John Chernoff in his important work with the Dagomba, African Sensibility: Aesthetics and Social Action in African Musical Idioms, notes that "The power and dynamic potential of the music is in the silence, and the gaps between the notes, [the absolute void] and it is into this openness that a creative participant will place his contribution, trying to open up the music further."
Chernoff realized that music serves as a conscious cultural practice to access the absolute void and obtain transformative powers in these cultures. He points out that "both [the dialectical Marcuse and Lacan] are suggestive of ways in which Western philosophical literature on alienation is addressed in the aesthetics of African music."279
214 Bateson, Angels Fear, p. 60.
215 Bateson, Angels Fear, p. 24. Bateson was drawing from "On the Discovery of Deductive Science," The St. John's Review (January, 1980): 21-31
216 Rothstein, Emblems of Mind, p. 29.
217 Robin Hartshorne, "Teaching Geometry According to Euclid," Notices of the AMS, Vol. 47, no. 4, p. 461.
218 Dominic J. O'Meara, Pythagoras Revived: Mathematics and Philosophy in Late Antiquity (Oxford: Clarendon Press of Oxford University Press, 1980), pp. 67-68.
219 Peter Gorman, Pythagoras: A Life (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), p. 137. For the latest biography see John Strohmeier, Peter Westbrook, John Scrohmeier, Divine Harmony: The Life and Teachings of Pythagoras (CA: Berkeley Hills Books, 1999).
220 The latest analysis that assumes Pythagoras did not know about the transcendental or "irrational" only approaches the problem from arithmetic or geometry and leaves out the actual music proportional approach that Pythagoras used. Philip Hugly; Charles Sayward, "Did the Greeks discover the irrationals?" Philosophy 74 (April 1999): 169.
221 For the connection between the Taoist and Pythagorean use of initiation and the transcendental see, "A. Volkov, "Zhao Youqin and his calculation of pi," Historia Mathematic 24 (Aug. 1997): 301-331. Zhao Youqin was a Taoist Master.
222 Leibniz, the founder of calculus and binary logic, was bent on creating a "characteristica universalis" or universal method of reasoning enabling direct communication. His motivation was the complete destruction of the great thirty year religious war from which a desire for dogmatic abstract certainty or the modern paradigm arose. Leibniz though was already transcending the linear materialistic religion of technology suffering of his day, by using the I Ching as a parallel basis for his multidimensional approach, unlike Descartes. Toulmin, Cosmopolis, pp. 100-102 and Schönberger, The I Ching and the Genetic Code, pp. 59-67.
223 Rothstein, Emblems of Mind, pp. 50-56,148.
224 Steven M. Rosen, "Concept of the Infinite and the Crisis of Modern Physics," Speculations in Science and Technology 6 (1983): 413-425.
225 Jamie James, The Music of the Spheres: Music, Science, and the Natural Order of the Universe (NY: Grove Press, 1993), p. 36. Lawlor gives logos the more specific definition of the three-termed proportion (vs. four term)."The Measure of Difference." Logos is the term Ashok Gangadean uses to describe his universal grammar of "meditative reason" that he also calls a "primal bonding force." See Ashok Gangadean, Between Worlds: The Emergence of Global Reason (NY: Peter Lang, 1998)
226 Bateson, Angels Fear, p. 27, 117.
227 Loy, Nonduality, p. 4.
228 Berendt also gives the broader cultural context: "Chuang-tzu, the ancient Chinese sage, wrote 'What is one, is one. What is not-one, also is one.' And Erich Fromm notes: 'Paradoxical logic was predominant in Chinese and Indian thinking, in Heraclitus' philosophy, and then again under the name of dialectics in the thought of Hegel and Marx'.... By way of contrast the thinking behind the Chinese and Japanese languages do not move in a straight line from the subject to the object with no aid of the verb. It circles around its object and envelops it until it is specified as precisely as the objects in our Western languages (which presupposes an inner predicate); in fact, specialists feel that these Asian languages are even more precise since they do not simply 'objectivate' but rather let subject and object 'become one' so that the active and the passive mode fall together...."
228 The World Is Sound, pp. 44-49.
229 Noël Burch, To The Distant Observer: Form and Meaning in the Japanese Cinema (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979).
230 Robert Schmidt, "Phasis and Logos," presentation at FortFest, Fall 1997, of The International Fortean Organization (INFO), MS available at 532 Washington St., Cumberland MD 21502 see his Project Hindsight at http://www.projecthindsight-tghp.com/ INFO, founded in 1965 to expand the original Fortean Society, is dedicated to disseminating and building upon the pioneering research of scientific anomalies by Charles Fort, best known today as the basis for the The X-Files television show. INFO Journal, P.O. Box 367, Arlington, VA 22210-0367. The Complete Books of Charles Fort, introduction by Damon Knight (New York : Dover Publications, 1974).
231 Lu K'uan Yü, Ch'an and Zen Teaching, pp. 46-47.
232 Peter Kingsley, Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic: Empedocles and Pythagorean Tradition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 158 See also "The birth of philosophy as a falsification of history," in Antonio Capizzo, The Cosmic Republic: Notes for a non-peripatetic history of the birth of philosophy in Greece (Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1990).
233 Rothstein, Emblems of Mind, p. 238.
234 Bateson, Mind and Nature, p. 116.
235 Herbert, Quantum Reality, pp. 20-21.
236 Fritoj Capra, The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understand of Living Systems, pp. 83-84. See also Per Bak, How Nature Works: The science of self-organized criticality (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997) and Murray Gell-Mann, The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the simple and the complex (New York: W.H. Freeman, 1995).
237 The biologist Kammerer also discovered this law of nature and called it the "Law of Seriality," P. Kammerer, Das Gesetz der Serie (Stuttgart: Dtsch. Verl-Anst., 1919), quoted in Watson, Supernature, p. 111. Dr. Wilhelm Reich was persecuted for his discovery of self-organizing vital energy that he called orgone.
238 Chaos theory thus models the lost multidimensional proportional knowledge system of ancient wisdom. The modern paradigm is dependent on the closed circle linearly determined ratio system for music analysis, Cartesian analysis, the incorrect supply and demand economic model, Euclidian zoning, and the linear subject-predicate (ratio) structure of western language.
239 Ibid., pp. 129-130, 135-136. Another example to describe the paradox of order out of chaos is a Pythagorean spiral-vortex, like water flowing down a drain. We know the system limits of the drain and even the principles of the flow but the water itself is constantly moving.
240 Martin Gardner, Fractal Music, Hypercards and More: Mathematical Recreations from Scientific American Magazine (NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1992), p. 3.
241 HJ Sun, L. Liu, AK Guo, "Iteration logistic map dynamics in the polar coordinates," Fractals-An Interdisciplinary Journal on the complex geometry of nature 6 (March 1998): 11-22.
242 György Hall, Chaos Near Resonance (NY: Springer, 1999), vii.
243 Bateson was similarly held back by the prominence of Freud's primordially repressed and Wilber also points out this limitation.
244 Slavoj Zizek, The Plague of Fantasies (New York: Verso, 1997). p. 92.
245 Ibid., p. 208.
246 Slavoj Zizek, Tarrying with the Negative, p. 165.
247 Ibid., p. 192.
248 Zizek, Tarrying with the Negative, p. 237.
249 Dong and Esser, Chi Gong, p. 199.
250 Zizek, Tarrying with the Negative, pp. 122-123. Just like the derivative for Weierstrass, for Zizek, the linear symbolic limit is the never-ending goal, still repressing the transcendental consequences of analysis. The focus of Zizek's latest book The Fragile Absolute: Or, Why the Christian Legacy is Worth Fighting For (NY: Verso, 2000) is an overt attack on the growing recognition of "the sacred" and is literally a full embrace of linear symbolic logic reflected by the materialistic western religion of technology.
251 Rothstein, Emblems of Mind, p. 28.
252 Lendvai, Bela Bartok, p. 24. The intervals, although found in the chords, are dependant on the chord inversions as well.
253 Jeans, Science and Music, p. 157.
254 Rothstein, Emblems of Mind, p. 29. For tritone as source of the infinite transcendental (or "irrational" [Ã2] in the modern paradigm) see "Music's Discipline of the Means: An Interview with Ernest McClain." Parabola 16 (Winter, 1991): 85.
255 On the void as the source of the dyad see O'Meara, Pythagoras Revived, pp. 67-68.
256 Although I have never seen the multidimensional spiral fifths used to demonstrate the dialectical process before, Ernst Levy did perceive the relationship when he described the cadence of the dominants of dominants of tonics (the cycle of fifths) as a "dialectical process." Levy, A Theory of Harmony, p. 98 citing Moritz Hauptman, The Nature of Harmony and Metre (London: Swan Sonnenschien, 1888). This process is what is called "nondual duality" in Dr. Steven Rosen's Science, Paradox, and the Moebius Principle: The evolution of a "transcultural" approach to wholeness (SUNY, 1994) and it also addresses the criticisms of materialistic monism raised against George Picht, as cited by Thomas Bargatzky. David Loy in Nonduality discusses this same approach to reality as found in Buddhism and John Milbank starts to touch on the concept while discussing postmodernism: "Hence transcendence as envisaged by the doctrine of creation ex nihilo does indeed imply dualism, and yet a kind of perpetually self-cancelling dualism. This is the nearest we can get to nondualism...." See "Problematizing the Secular: The post-postmodern agenda," in Philippa Berry and Andrew Wernick, eds., Shadow of Spirit: Postmodernism and Religion (NY: Routledge, 1992), p. 42.
257 Slavoj Zizek, The Indivisible Remainder : An Essay on Schelling and Related Matters (NY: Verso, 1996), p. 104. The basis of Pythagorean principles as the foundation for mythic meaning is also analyzed by Fred Fisher, "Music and the Wheel: The Oedipus Story," Interdisciplina I/3 (Spring 1976): 38-54. As music theorist Ernest McClain states, "There seems to be, from the archaeological evidence, a considerable ubiquity of musical artifacts from the early third millennium, and, from what I read into the early mythology and its numerology, I believe all major cultures possessed the harmonic system we call Pythagorean." "Music's Discipline of the Means: An Interview with Ernest McClain," Parabola 16 (Winter, 1991): 85.
258 See "the paradox of a finite totality," in Slavoj Zizek, For They Know Not What They Do: Enjoyment as a political factor (NY: Verso, 1991). See also limit or threshold of octave Gurdjieff footnote above. Although I will give further references for addressing the symptoms of political economic "externalities," again the focus of this work is modeling the formal foundation for those externalities so that they can be effectively approached considering the immense power of repression (socially, psychologically and spiritually).
259 For jouissance as phi see Slavoj Zizek, The Sublime Object of Subjectivity, (London: Verso, 1989). For Pythagorean law of growth, divine proportion as phi see Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods, p. 336 and Rothstein, Emblems of Mind, p. 157. Rothstein, still based in linear thinking, captures the pathos of the modern western paradigm: "The music 'in itself' is the abstract model whose essence defies even a purely formal analysis," Emblems of Mind, p. 212.
260 Karl Pribram, Languages of the Brain: Experimental paradoxes and principles in neuropsychology (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hill, Inc., 1971). See also Michael Talbot, The Holographic Universe (NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991).
261 Zizek, The Plague of Fantasies, p. 38. Sound-current nondualism enables a resolution to the highly problematic yet remarkable influence of Heidegger on postmodern and radical ecology theory. Rosen notes that according to Heidegger, "We are to retrace our steps, work our way back through our 2500-year-old tradition... By so returning to the primal origin of philosophy, a fresh perspective would be gained on its fundamental problems...this question [of Being] has been shrouded in obscurity or entirely misunderstood since the time of Plato and Aristotle. So Heidegger was concerned with the form of thinking, over and above its content...." Rosen, "Psi and Non-Dual Duality," in Parapsychology, Philosophy and Religious Concepts, p. 73. Loy draws the same fundamental point from Heidegger that brings us back to the Pythagorean physis analysis of George Picht: "that the Greek concepts of physis and hypkeimenon ('that which lies before') embodied some naive understanding of this 'thought,' [nondualism] later lost when they were transformed into techne and the self-conscious subjectum, respectively." And "techne or 'thinking...without result" is the "more calculative, re-presentational...the 'technical interpretatoin' of thinking: thinking, as Plato and Aristotle (but evidently not Socrates) took it to be...." Loy, Nonduality, p. 166.
262 Ibid, p. 32.
263 Haase cited by Berendt, The World Is Sound, p. 80.
264 Slavoj Zizek, The Sublime Object of Ideology, p. 189. See also Theodor Reik, The Haunting Melody: Psychoanalytic experiences in life and music (New York: Farrar, Straus and Young, 1953).
265 Richard Leppert, The Sight of Sound: Music, Representation and the History of the Body (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), pp. 213-215.
266 This is even after Wilber edited The Holographic Paradigm and other paradoxes: exploring the leading edge of science (Boston: Shambhala, 1982).
267 See Wilber, Sex, Ecology, Spirituality for several references on "tribal consciousness," pp. 52, 166, 571, 582. Michael Horace Barnes in his Stages of Thought: The co-evolution of religious thought and science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) provides a seemingly more "balanced" promotion of the preoperational category of analysis (Chp. 3, "Cognitive Styles in Primitive Cultures,"). Applying Piaget's preoperational category for children to cultures is advocating linear teleological brain evolution to the goal of western rationality, reinforcing the same linear western culturally genocidal assumptions as well. (again this is in contrast to Pribram's neuro-psychological research and the work of other anthropologists cited in this book, see especially Junzo Kawada's "Human Dimensions in the Sound Universe," in Redefining Nature). Drawing from the extensive analysis of this structural issue by Graham Richards, On Psychological Language and the Physiomorphic Basis of Human Nature (NY: Routledge, 1989), Mary Midgely notes: "The notion of 'primitive animisim' comes from a familiar Enlightenment myth that compares the intellectual development of the human race to that of an individual -- there are obvious reasons why people in simpler [sic.] cultures might count as more adult than highly civilized people, since they have to be much more self-reliant." Mary Midgley, Science As Salvation: A modern myth and its meaning (London: Routledge, 1992), p. 171. Even Paul D. McClean, the creator of the triune theory of linear brain evolution that is the basis of Wilber's analysis, has switched to the resonance theory of Pribram! (as cited in the first section of this book, "Sound-Current Nondualism") The real problem of tribal consciousness according to Wilber is that it is missing "a level of law and morality" to build unified societies that can deal with social conflict beyond the limited small tribes. Ward Churchill documents that Native Americans, contrary to Wilber's claim, were known for just the opposite ability. That the democratic federation of native nations was a direct inspiration for the structure of the U.S. government is also well documented. Many scholars have argued it is precisely the superior social skills of indigenous societies that differentiate them from top-down linear western institutions. See Ward Churchill, Struggle for the land: Indigenous resistance to genocide, ecocide and expropriation in contemporary North America, forward by John Trudell, preface by Winona LaDuke (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1993). See also Jerry Manders, "Our Founding Mothers and Fathers ( the Iroquois," Earth Island Journal: International Environmental News (Fall 1991): 30.
268 Kay Milton, "Nature and the Environment in Indigenous and Traditional Cultures," in David E. Cooper and Joy A. Palmer, eds., Spirit of the Environment: Religion, value and environmental concern (NY: Routledge, 1998), pp. 86-100.
269 Ibid., p. 96.
270 Ibid. Milton emphasizes that even the terms indigenous and traditional are contentious, while environmental perspectives are diverse and fluctuate, and that the effects of those values are contingent to the intensity of impact. She emphasizes a "trans-cultural" approach that identifies environmental cultures. See also Kay Milton, "Ecologies: Anthropology, culture and the environment," International Social Science Journal 49 (1997) and Kay Milton, Environmentalism and Cultural Theory: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse (New York: Routledge, 1996).
271 Berendt, The World Is Sound, p. 145.
273 The 4,000-5,000 of 6,000 figure and the conscious sustainable ecological practices of the world's indigenous cultures are documented by Alan Thein Durning, "Supporting Indigenous Peoples," State of the World 1993: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society (NY: W.W. Norton, 1993). See also FO Adeola, "Cross-national Environmental Injustice and Human Rights Issues: A review of evidence in the developing world," American Behavioral Scientist 43 (2000): 686-706.
274 See for example, Howard L. Harrod, The Animals Came Dancing: Native American sacred ecology and animal kinship (Tucson: University of Arizon Press, 2000); Barabara Noske, "Speciesism, anthropocentrism and non-western cultures," Anthrozoös 10 (1997): 183-190; S. Sharma, HC Rikhari, LMS Palni, "Conservation of Natural Resources Through Religion: A case study from Central Himalaya," Society and Natural Resources 12 (1999): 599-612; PH Stephenson, "Environmental Health Perspectives on the Consequences of an Ideology of Control in 'Natural' Systems," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 34 (1997): 349-367; and M. Richards, "Common Property Resource Institutions and Forest Management in Latin America," Development and Change 28 (1997): 95-117; PM Jostad, LH McAvoy, D. McDonald, "Native American land ethics: Implications for natural resource management," Society and Natural Resources 9 (1996): 565-581.
275 For a review of the backlash against indigenous research see David Watson (aka George Bradford), Beyond Bookchin: Preface for a future social ecology (NY: Autonomedia, 1996) as well as the anthropological references of anarcho-primitivist researcher John Zerzan. One example is Robert B. Edgerton, Sick Societies: Challenging the myth of primitive harmony (New York: Free Press, 1992). Edgerton does an impressive job cataloging every extreme behavior in indigenous cultures and certainly proves the point that indigenous cultures are not lacking violence, destruction of the environment and, even on occasion, organized warfare. What is missing from his critique is not only the context for each example he cites but the relative several orders of magnitude difference in comparison with the impact of the West on indigenous societies. This lack of comparison with the qualitative difference of industrialism as well as the assumption of western rationality as universally superior can also be found in Peter Coates' otherwise informative summary of the issue in his Nature: Western attitudes since ancient times (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998); For the latest and most sophisticated version of this backlash see Shepard Krech III, The Ecological Indian: Myth and History (NY: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999). Krech starts the book off with the infamous "Keep America Beautiful" teary-eyed Indian infomercial and states that this anti-pollution ad just helped feed the incorrect environmental stereotype about indigenous cultures. He neglects to mention the campaign was actually funded by "greenwashing" corporations that were attacking and twisting the true environmental concerns of traditional indigenous cultures. Krech's book is a similar high profile trojan horse disguised as sincere concern. On the repressed history of the destructive U.S. take-over of Hawaii see Noam Chomsky, Year 501: The Conquest Continues (Boston: South End Press, 1993). See also Annette M. Jaimes. The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonialization and Resistance (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1992); Bruce E. Johansen. Ecocide of Native America: Environmental Destruction of Indian Lands and Peoples. (Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Publishers, 1995); Elisabet Sahtouris, Ph.D, "The Survival Path: Cooperation between Indigenous and Industrial Humanity" at http://www.ratical.org/LifeWeb/ A balanced overview can also be found in the books on the topic by anthropologist Jack Weatherford.
276 Meyer, Music, the Arts, and Ideas, p. 172. See also former World Bank senior economist Herman Daly, Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development (Boston: Beacon Press, 1997) and his earlier work, Steady-State Economics (San Francisco: Island Press, 1991). Daly works with John B. Cobb an advocate of Alfred Whitehead's Pythagorean process theology also studied by David Griffin. Herman E. Daly, John B. Cobb, For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994). Polkinghorne notes the Cobb process theology in Belief in God in an Age of Science, p. 55. For the evidence of Pythagoras' continued social systems influence on "organizational behavior:" James Bedfore-Roberts, "Concepts from Pythagoras," Hewleet-Packard technical report; HPL-91-22, 1991.
277 Jacques Attali, Noise: The Political Economy of Music (Theory and History of Literature, Vol 16) (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1985).
278 John E. Peck, "Nonequilibrium Perspectives and Indigenous Knowledge for Community Management of Natural Resources in Zimbabwe," (MS, Geography 920, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1996). See also PS Sriraj, CJ Khisty, "Crisis Management and Planning Using Systems Methodologies," Journal of Urban Planning and Development-ASCE 125 (1999): 121-133.
279 John Chernoff, African Sensibility: Aesthetics and Social Action in African Musical Idioms (Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1979). See also Philip M. Peek, "The Sounds of Silence: Cross-world communication and the auditory arts in African societies," American Ethnologist 21 (1994): 474-494. There is a large literature base proving indigenous cultures' use and understanding of sophisticated spiritual-philosophical concepts: Frances Densmore, Chippewa Customs (St. Paul, MN: MHS Press, 1929, reprint edition, 1979); Frances Densmore, Chippewa Music: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins. (MHS Press, January 1910); Charles Boiles, Man, Magic and Musical Occasions (Montreal, Quebec, Canada: University of Montreal Press, 1978); Marina Roseman, Healing Sounds from the Malaysian Rainforest : Temiar Music and Medicine. Comparative Studies of Health Systems and Medical Care, Vol 28. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); William K. Powers, Sacred Language: The Nature of Supernatural Discourse in Lakota (London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986). Tom Brown Jr., Awakening Spirits (NY: Berkley Publishing, 1994); Alan Ereira, The Heart of the World (London: Jonathan Cape, 1990).