Salish
Nuxalk, Lushootseed, Straits Salish, Shuswap, Spokane Salish, Coeur d'Alene

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Ikus Ameriketako hizkuntzen azpi-aurkibidea


Salish

There are some 30 languages in the Salish language family, some of them already dead, and the rest in the verge of extinction. In each language, there are tribes or bands with different dialects and names, so there are a lot of Salish groups in Canada (British Columbia) and USA (Washington, Idaho, Montana). The name Salish comes from the word "Salst", which in Okanagan (one of the Salish languages) means "person". The center of the Salish territory is more or less the western end of the US-Canada border.

Spellings in our lists have been adapted from phonetic scripts. In this page, tables for these Salish languages: Straits Salish, Spokane Salish, Shuswap, Nuxalk (Bella Coola), Lushootseed (Puget Sound Salish), Coeur d'Alene. In another page: Halkomelem.

Salish

Salish hizkuntza familian 30 bat hizkuntza daude, batzuk hilak, beste guztiak hiltzeko bidean. Hizkuntza bakoitzean, tribu asko ziren, bakoitza dialekto eta talde izen berezkoekin. Ondorioz, izugarri izen ugari erabiltzen da Salish herrientzat Kanadan (Kolunbia Britainiarra) eta Estatu Batuetan (Washington, Idaho, Montana). Salish izena "Salst" hitzetik dator: Okanagan hizkuntzan (Salish familiakoa, hain zuzen) "pertsona" esan nahi du. Salish lurraldeen erdigunea gaurko EEBBetako eta Kanadaren arteko mugaren mendebaldeko muturra da, gutxi gora-behera.

Gure tauletatik ortografia idazkera fonetikotik egokitu dugu. Horri honetan, honako hizkuntza Salish hauek ditugu: Itsasarteko Salishera, Spokane Salishera, Shuswap, Nuxalk (Bella Coola), Lushootseed (Puget Soundeko Salishera), Coeur d'Alene. Beste orri batean: Halkomelem.



Bella Coola

The Nuxalk people were formerly called Bella Coola, after the name given by colonizers to the place where they live. That is an inlet in central British Columbia coast, Canada. There are 200 or fewer speakers of this Salishan language out of an ethnic group of 700.

About spellings: The "7" is a convention that marks a glottal stop (phonetically represented by a "?" without the dot). Non-initial capital X is a uvular fricative, opposed to small x (velar fricative, like Spanish jota).

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Nuxalk

Nuxalk herriari Bella Coola esaten zitzaion lehen, kolonizatzaileek emandako izen bat. Kostaldeko herria dira, Britainia Kolunbiarrean, Kanadan. 200 hiztun baino gutxiago geratzen dira 700 laguneko talde etnikoan.

Idazkera: "7" zeinua eta X/x larri eta xehearen bereizketak konbentzio erabiliak dira Salish hizkuntzetan, zeinu fonetikoak idazkera arruntean adierazteko.


Mapetan, ingelesez / Map name in English

Nuxalk

Atnarko River

La7Xilx

Bella Coola

Nuxalk

Kwatna

Qwalhna

Necleetsconnay River

Nut'XiXtskwan'e

Tallio

Taliyu

Whitewater River

Slaaklh



Lushootseed

Lushootseed (Salish native form: Dxwlesucid) is the name given lately to the Salishan language formerly known as Puget Sound Salish. This was spoken by different groups around Puget Sound, where Seattle is located, in Washington state, US. Here there are some tribal or group names of the Lushootseed region: Skagit, Snohomish, Swinomish, Duwamish, Nisqually, Puyallup, Suquamish, Muckelshoot, Snoqualmie, Twana, Tulalip, Squaxin... Those groups had no common ethnic name, so no general name for the name existed. The languages is in the verge of extinction: some 150 speakers (1990) out of 4,000 people in the ethnic groups. Most names in our list coincide with tribal & dialect names, as they are derived from placenames.

About spellings: The "7" is a convention that marks a glottal stop (phonetically represented by a "?" without the dot). Non-initial capital X is a uvular fricative, opposed to small x (velar fricative, like Spanish jota).

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Dxwlesucid

Lushootseed izena ematen zaio orain (jatorrizko forma: Dxwlesucid) lehen Puget Sound Salish zeritzonari. Puget Sound badia Seattle hiriaren kokagunea da Wasghington estatuan, eta lehen Salish taldeko hainbat herri bizi ziren han inguruan. Honako hauek, hain zuzen:: Skagit, Snohomish, Swinomish, Duwamish, Nisqually, Puyallup, Suquamish, Muckelshoot, Snoqualmie, Twana, Tulalip, Squaxin... Izenetarik gehienak toki-izenetan dute jatorria (gure zerrendan ikus dezakezunez), eta gainera dialektoak ere bereizten dituzte. Taldeen arteko izen edo identitate etniko komunik ez zegoen. Hizkuntza hilzorian dago: 150m bat hiztun (1990) 4.000 laguneko talde etnikoan.

Idazkera: "7" zeinua eta X/x larri eta xehearen bereizketak konbentzio erabiliak dira Salish hizkuntzetan, zeinu fonetikoak idazkera arruntean adierazteko.


Mapetan, ingelesez / Map name in English

Dxwlesucid (Lushootseed)

Duwamish

Dxwdu7absh

Jefferson Head

Sqwayupshed

Muckleshoot

Beqelshulh

Nisqually

Sqwali7absh

Nooksack

Beshxwsa7q

Puyallup

Spualepubsh

Sahewamish

S7ehiw'7bsh

Samish

S7abs

Sauk-Siattle

Sui7atl'bixw

Seattle

Dzidzalal'ich

Skagit

Sqajet

Skyhomish

Sq'ixwebsh

Snohomish

Sduhubs

Snoqualmie

Sdukwalbixw

Squaxin Island

SqwaXsed

Suquamish

D'suq'wub

Swinomish

Swedebsh

White River

Sbalqwu7



Straits Salish

Straits Salish was the language spoken in the westernmost US-Canada border area, between Puget Sound, Olympic peninsula, Vancouver Island, in the islands and shores of the sea straits of that region, in present day British Columbia (Canada) and Washington (US). Different groups spoke the language, each with its own ethnic identity and dialect, and there was not an ethnic unity among the groups. Roughly, there were two dialect groups: Southern, represented solely by Klallam (own ethnic and language names: Nexwstl'ayem & Nexwstl'ay'em'u'cen) in Olympic peninsula (Washington), and Northern, represented by the Lummi (own language name: Xwlemichosen), Semiahmoo, Saanich, Samish (own ethnic name: S'emish), Sooke and Songish (all northern groups are Canadian except the Lummi). This language is virtually extinct. There were 5 Klallam speakers in the 1990 US census, and some 30 speakers of northern varieties (1990) out of 3.000 people in the ethnic groups.

Itsasarteetako Salishera

Itsasarteetako Salishera (nolabait euskaratzearren) EEBB-Kanadako mugako mendebaldeko muturreko jatorrizko hizkuntza zen. Puget Sound golkoa, Olympic penintsula, Vancouver uhartea, eta tarteko uharte eta itsasarteetako kostaldeetan hitz egiten zen, gaurko Kolunbia Britainarrean (Kanada) Washington estatuan (EEBB). Talde etniko desberdinen hizkuntza zen, bakoitza bere izen, nortasun eta dialektoarekin, batasunezko izenik gabe. Taldeak bi multzotan sailka daitezke: Hegoaldekoan Klallam herria dugu (taldearen eta hizkuntzaren jatorrizko izenak: Nexwstl'ayem eta Nexwstl'ay'em'u'cen) Olympic penintsulan (Washington). Iparraldekoan, zenbait herri: Lummi (hizkuntzaren jatorrizko izena: Xwlemichosen), Semiahmoo, Saanich, Samish (taldearen jatorrizko izena: S'emish), Sooke and Songish. Hauek guztiak Kanadakoak Lummi herria izan ezik. Itsasarteetako Salishera laster hilko da: 5 Klallam hiztun zeuden 1990ean (EEBBetako errolda), eta 30 bat iparraldeko barietateetan (1990ean), 3.000 lagun baino gehiagoko multzo etnikoan.


Mapetan / Map Name

Itsasarteetako Salishera /
Straits Salish

Tribua, dialektua (kokapena) /
Tribe, dialect (location)

Bellingham

Xwotqem

Lummi (USA)

Brown Bridge

Sheqetses

Saanich (Canada)

Elwha

'E'lxwe

Klallam (USA)

Fidalgo

Xwkwlo'ol

Samish (Canada)

Fraser Island

Qa'i'ngexw

Klallam (USA)

Fraser River

Shnawil

Saanich (Canada)

Iceberg Point

Sxwolechol

Samish (Canada)

Jamestown

Stet'ílem

Klallam (USA)

Mount Constitution

Shepeliqw

Saanich (Canada)

Port Gamble

Nexwqé'yet

Klallam (USA)

Pysht

Peshct

Klallam (USA)

Turn Point

Shen'es

Saanich (Canada)



Spokane Salish

The Spokane Salish language (native name of the language: Npoqinishan) is spoken by about 60 people, mostly tribal elders, living on the Spokane Indian Reservation northwest of Spokane, Washington, USA, and on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation in northern Idaho, USA. Our placenames are all from Washington.

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Npoqinishan

Spokane Salish mintzaira (hizkuntzaren jatorrizko izena: Npoqinishan) dakitenak 60 lagun besterik ez dira Estatu Batuetan, tribuko zaharrak batez ere, Spokane erreserban Spokanetik ipar-mendebaldera Washington-en, eta ,Coeur d'Alene erreserban, idahon. Gure toki izen guztiak Washingtongoak dira.


Map name / Mapetan

Npoqinishan (Spokane Salish)

Hunters

Poxwpoxwxwilsh

Little Falls

Scqesciln'i'

Spokane

Stlxetkw

Spokane Indian Reservation (Wellpinit)

Schecuwe

Wellpinit

Schecuweshu's

Wellpinit (Spokane Indian Reservation)

Schecuwe



Shuswap

The Shuswap are a Salish nation living in interior British Columbia, in Canada, Their own ethnic name is Secwepemc, and their language is called Secwepemcin. There are less than 500 speakers out of 6,500 population.

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Secwepemcin

Shuswap herria Kolunbia Britainiarreko barnealdean bizi da, Kanadan. Beren taldearen izen berezkoa Secwepemc da, eta hizkuntzarena Secwepemcin. 500 hiztun baino gutxiago geratzen dira 6.500 laguneko talde etnikoan.


Mapetan / Map Name

Secwepemcin (Shuswap)

Alkali Lake Reserve

Hasket / Esketemc

Bonaparte

Stextews

Canim Lake Reserve

Sqesxn

Canoe Creek

Scwexmx

Dog Creek Reserve

Xwet'tm

Gustafsen Lake

Ts'peten

Kamloops

Tkmlups

Kokanee Bay

Xkeknenxotn

Long Lake

Xyeyexke

Savona

Skmqin

Soda Creek Reserve

Xecul

Two Springs

Xsl-saleltkeh



Coeur d'Alene

The Coeur d'Alene people receive their name form a lake named that way by colonizers. They are also called Skitswish. This Salishan grop lived between Northern Washington, Idaho and Montana. Now, the remaining Coeur d'Alene are in Northern Idaho, in Coeur d'Alene Reservation. The language is nearly extinct: some 60 speakers in 1990, out of 700 people in the ethnic group.

Spellings, including barred L's, underlined X's and bracket signs [ ( ] is just as it is used currently to write Coeur d'Alene. It is a system devised by Lawrence Nicodemus.

Coeur d'Alene

Coeur d'Alene herriaren izenak frantses kolonizatzaileek laku bati emandako izenean du jatorria. Skitswish ere esaten zaie. Salish herri hau Washongton, Idaho eta Montana estatuetako iparraldean bizi zen. Egun Coeur d'Alene erreserban, Idahon, 700 bat geratzen dira, baina soilik 60 hiztun, zaharrak denak.

Idazkera Coeur d'Alene mintzaira idazteko erabiltzen den berbea da, L marradunak, X azpimarradunak eta parentesi zeinuak [ ( ] barne.


Mapetan, ingelesez / Map name in English

Coeur d'Alene

Andrews Spring, id

Han(wos(woskwe'

Benewah Bay, id

Hanchichi'li

Clark's Fork

Hanch'emtsi

Clarkia, id

Chatanna / Chatanwaxitpan

Coeur D'Alene River

Hanq'wt'umshkwe'

Coeur d'Alene, id

Hanch'amqinkwe'

Colfax

Hanchlaxman

Grizzly Mountain

Txistam

Heyden Lake, id

Hant'aq'an

Lake Coeur d'Alene

Hanch'amqinkwe'

Little Coeur D'Alene River

Hantsegwash

Mission Mt. / Mineral Mt. id

Hanmolshalchamqan

Moctelme Valley, id

Hanchdmine'kwe'

Pend Oreille, id

Han(ats(atsine'

Plummer, id

Hant'achq'an

Rockford, wa

Hanmulshench

Spangle, wa

Hants'o'yo'yxwam

Spokane Bridge. wa

Hants'aq'ilpench

Sprague

Qi'xwqi'xw

St. Maries, id

Hanch'emtsan


Mapak / Maps

Mapak beste leiho batean irekiko zaizkizu.
Maps will open in a new window.

Kolunbia Britainiarreko herriak. "Coast Salish" dioen tokian Itsasarteetako Salishtarrak daude.
Languages and cultures of British Columbia. The Straits Salish are among the Coast Salish

Kostaldeko Salishtarren eskualdeko hizkuntzen mapa
Language map of the coastal Salish region

Kanadako Pazifikoko kostaldeko hizkuntzak
Languages of the Paficic coast of Canada

Pazifiko kostaldeko hizkuntzak (handia! 400 Kb)
Languages of the Paficic coast (large: 400 Kb)

Pazifiko kostaldeko hizkuntzen desagertzeko aukerak (handia! David Beck gure kolaboratzailearen mapa)
Language death of the Paficic coast (large: a map by GeoNative collaborator David Beck)


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