Study Guide Expanded Notes
Anatomy and Physiology
I. The Human Body: An Overview (5%)
A. Basic anatomical terminology
1. Body cavities and regions
2. Anatomical position, planes, and directional terms
B. General organization of the body
1. Cell structure and function as revealed by electron microscopy (including cell membrane receptor sites)
Anatomy of a Typical Cell.
Anatomy of a Representative Cell.
Organelles (membranous ornonmembranous)
Three types of intercellular attachments
The cell adhesion molecules of both cells hold the adjacent cell membranes tightly together which prevents all but the smalles of molecules to pass through, with most molecules using controlled channels or carrier molecules. These junctions are found between the epithelial cells which line the intestinal tract.
The cell membrane channel protein pores connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells through the tunnel, or gap produced by the channel. These junctions are found in cardiac muscle cells, allowing for a single electrical impulse can stimmulate many cells at the same time.
Here the cytoskeleton protein filaments of both cells connect the cytoskeleton of one cell to the other cell. This form of junction is the strongest of the intercellular attachments.
2. Fundamental body tissues
Cells in the body, like most multicellular organisms, are organized into tissues.
Four primary tissue types
Note that epithelia and connective tissues are combine to form epitheial membranes.
cutaneous membrane - skin
serous membranes, line body cavities
mucous membranes - line respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts
Connective tissue membranes - connective tissue only
synovial membranes - joints and bursae
Characteristics of epithelia classes
stratified squamous cell epithelia, vs. simplecuboidal cell epithelia, etc.)
epithelia produce secretions
Squamous- The cells are flat and irregular shaped with the nucleus located near the center of the cell.
Cuboid- The cells are cube-shaped with the cell nucleus located near the center of the cell.
Columnar- The cells are rectangular in shape, higher than their width, with the nucleus near the basal end of the cell.
Pseudostratified - The cells are oddly shaped columnar cells .
Glandular epithelium produce secretions, with all secretitory products requiring energy for production.
Exocrin glands discharge secretions into ducts.
Endocrin glands discharge directly into the blood, or interstial fluid.
Apocrin glands- cells collect secretory products in the end or tip of the cell, and a portion of the cell is pinched off - mammary glands
Holocrine glands- secretory product is inside the cell and the whole cell ruptures, releasing products but resulting in cell death - sebacous glands - skin oil
Merocrine glands - secretory product is discharged through cell wall and this is the most common form of secretory cells - salivary glands
found throughout the body
include bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, adipose (fat), and blood.
three general types of connective tissue
fibrous connective tissue
bone and cartilage
Differences between bone and cartilage
Bone is vascularized, with cartilage avascular.
Bone is able to repair itself, with cartilage unable.
Bone has calcium salts in its matrix, cartilage does not, thus cartilage is flexible and bone solid.
has the ability to contract
three types of muscle tissue
skeletal or striated volunitary muscle
Long cylindrical fibers, multiple nuclei, striated
Associated with skeletal muscles and eyes, mouth, anus
cardiac or striated involuntary muscle
Branched cells with a single nucleus, striated
visceral, smooth or nonstriated involuntary muscle
Fusiform cells with a single nucleus, no striations
Digestive tract, blood vessels, respiratory tract, ducts of some exocrine glands, urinary bladder.
specialized for conducting electrical impulses
Two types of neural tissue cells
Parts of the neuron
3. Organs: definition and examples
Organs and the organ systems of the body are all made up of mixture of the four types of primary tissue.
4. Systems: definition and examples
C. Skin (Integument)
1 to 3 mm thick for the thin skin areas on most of the body
4 to 5 mm thick on the thick skin areas of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
Skin growth occurs in the stratum basale (base layer) and migrate up through the other layers, during which the cell cytoplasm is replaced with keratin, a water repellent protein. During the keratinization process, epidermal cells die, and continue to migrate to the surface, stratum corneum (horny layer) to eventually be shed.
Stratum corneum is the most superficial layer of epidermis. it is up to 30 layers thick. This outermost layer is composed of dead cells, and are being continually shed and replaced.
Stratum lucidum is present only in the thick skin such as on the palms of hands and soles of the feet. Epidermal cells appear smooth and glassy, forming a clear layer, which tends to block water loss or penetration.
Stratum granulosum has the epidermal cells undergoing keratinization and die.
Stratum spinosum has the epidermal cells forming desmosome junctions between cells, which gives it appearance to be called the spiny layer.
Stratum basale is the base layer with a single layer of columnar stem cells. It is this layer that undergoes mitosis, cell division. As well, the other cell types of melanocytes and Langerhan's cells are found in this stratum
Stratum germinativum is a term that encompasses both the stratum spinosum and stratum basale.
Keratinocytes are the main cell type for the epidermis, and these are the cells that undergo keratinization.
Melanocytes are the cell type that contains and contributes the colour to skin.
Langerhan's cells participate in immunological skin reactions.
Melanin, a dark brown pigment, is produced by the melanocytes and then transfered to the other epidermal cells. Melalin is converted from the amino acid tyrosine by the enzyme tyrosinase in the melanocytes.
It is the quanity of melanin that determins skin colour, depending upon genes and exposure to light.
Albinism is a congenital defect with the absence of tyrosinase enzyme.
2. Dermis (receptors, glands, hair follicles, nails)
types of hair
Vellus hair is a fine hair, a peach fuzz, which is found all over the body surface.
Terminal hair is a heavy and coarse hair, strongly pigmented, as is the head hair and pubic hair.
Intermediate hair has characteristics that are between those of vellus and terminal hair, and can be found on the arms and legs.
The Subcutaneous Layer" - the hypodermis
D. Maintenance of the internal environment
2. Cellular fluid dynamics
d. Active transport
e. Endocytosis and exocytosis