Yikes: "Within a few weeks of Saul's conversion [41 AD], the new Roman Emperor Tiberius Claudius [RE4] sentenced [Christians] to death by the sword, the torture chamber, or the lions in the Colosseum" Glastonbury, Donna Fletcher Crow, 1992, pp. 22-3).From Worldbook: Tiberius was the 2nd emperor of Rome, reigning 14-37 AD (born 42 BC) and is mentioned in the Bible. He was born in Rome, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero, an officer under Julius Caesar. His mother was Livia (pic tWR p34), who married Emperor Augustus (pic tAR p36) after Tiberius was born. Livia used her influence to advance Tiberius and his brother Drusus to important military commands. In 11 BC, Augustus forced Tiberius to divorce Vipsania and marry Julia, the Emperor's daughter (he hated her and lived with her only a short time). Once Tiberius became emperor, he trusted Sejanus, captain of the Praetorian Guard, to rule in his place for 5 yrs (26-31 AD) while he was in Capri. Sejanus set up a reign of terror, murdering any possible successors to Tiberius (including Tiberius' son Drusus and nephew Germanicus Caesar). Once Tiberius learned of this in 31 AD, he had Sejanus executed, thereafter trusting noone and executing many. His own death came as a relief to the governing class of Rome. Note: Only source for linking Arviragus to dau of Roman Emporer is Geoffrey of Monmouth, who says Arviragus m. Genvissa, dau of Claudius (RE4).
Family Index : : : Romans (1, Claudius Nero family, from www.american-pictures.com)
62 (xxxx-0074) Genvissa - Arviragus (Gweirydd), King of Britain (A29 P75)
63 (xxxx-0054) Tiberius Claudius Nero (pic tRW p35), (4th) Emperor of Rome - Julia Agrippina (II), Minor of Rome (sis of Caligula, dau of Germanicus)
64 (xxxx-xxxx) Nero Claudius Germanicus, Drusus of Rome (younger bro of Tiberius, 2nd Emperor) - Antonia, Minor of Rome
65 (xxxx-xxxx) Tiberius Claudius Nero, (Citizen? and officer under Julius Caesar) of Rome - Livia Drusilla, Empress of Rome (later m. Augustus)
66 (xxxx-xxxx) Appius Claudius Nero, (Citizen?) of Rome - ?
67 (xxxx-xxxx) Tiberius Claudius Nero, (Citizen?) of Rome - ?
Caesar Augustus m1. Claudia, Mark Antony's step-dau, born by his wife Fulvia to her ex-husband Publius Clodius, but divorced her before consummation after quarrelling w/Fulvia m2. Scribonia, dau of Lucius Scribonius, Libo of Rome, both of whose previous husbands had been ex-consuls, but divorced her for nagging, m3. Livia Drusilla, taking her away from her husband Tiberius (Caesar) Nero, tho she was pregnant at the time. Livia's sons with T C Nero were (2nd Emperor) Tiberius and Drusus. Augustus loved Livia until his death and grieved their lack of offspring (12C p. 85). Augustus' gdau Livilla 12C p. 106. He d. 19 Aug 14 AD around 3pm in the same room as his father Octavius (12C p. 107), from which our month is named.
c575 BC: Rome founded by Etruscans? Populated by them and Sabines, Latins, built on 7 hills: Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Caelian, Aventine, Palatine, Capitoline.
21 Apr 753 BC: Traditional date for Rome's founding by Romulus, a descendent of Aeneas (who fled Troy [c1150 tHoK] after its capture by Greeks, wandered the Mediteranean, founded Lavinium ... many years later, a descendent of Aeneas, King Numitor, was driven out by his wicked bro Amulius. Numitor's dau Rhea had just had twin sons; Romulus and Remus. Amulius ordered the babies thrown into the Tiber, rescued/suckled by she-wolf, discovered and raised by Faustulus (royal shepherd), later regained throne, but argued and Remus was k. (The Roman World, Mike Corbishley, Warwick, 1986, FHL). Aeneas' offspring founded the city of Alba Longa in the Italian region of Latium [S of R Tiber] ... the line of Alba's noble rulers leads to Romulus" (tAR p15).
King 1: Romulus, stole Sabine (neighboring tribe) women for wives, r40 yrs, 753-17. He invites the Sabine people to Rome for an entertainment program (at Circus Maximus), then, at his signal, the women are seized (how many? est. vary 30-600) ... later meet Sabine men in battle, defeat them (Rome, Inc. p19).
King 2: Numa Pompilius r717-673
King 3: Tullus Hostilius r673-42
King 4: Ancus Martius r642-?
(Kings 1-4 from Latin tribe, 5-7 from Etruscan tribe)
King 5: Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (1rst Etruscan king of Rome, Rome, Inc. p26)
King 6: Servius Tullius (Roman, not Etruscan)
King 7: Lucius Tarquinius (aka 'Tarquin the Proud')
This was Tarquinius 'Superbus' (obviously an egomaniac p27), c534 BC his loutish son Tarquinius Sextus, bored on a seige, has a brag-in w/fellow soldiers about whose wife is best. Conlatinus wins after he invites the others to meet his exceptional wife (not too bright himself though!). Tarq later returns while hubby gone and famously rapes Lucretia, who later commits suicide (stabs self in heart) in shame, challenging hubby and friends to avenge her ... hubby's friend (and Roman hero patriot) Junius Lucius Brutus removes knife and makes a famous speech calling for 'no more kings' (30) ... which leads to "500 years of rational mgt" (i.e. Republic, v. authoritarian monarchy, Rome Inc. p27-31).
"The fasces was a bundle of rods surrounding an ax, tied together with a red strap, symbolizing the right of the kings to beat and execute the people if they had done something wrong" (tRW p18, hence 'fascism').
509 BC: A group of patricians depose king, establish Roman Republic (res publica), "perhaps led by the legendary heroic patriot Lucius Junius Brutus" (tAR p29). Also, an attack by Etruscan king Lars Porsenna may have played a pivotal role. One noble family were the Horatii, of which brave Horatius Cocles was one (who, according to a [mythical?] story told by Livy, defended a key bridge over the Tiber during Porsenna's attack).
"Eventually, the executive center did not hold the corporation together as effectively as middle management could, and the Republic was born" (Rome, Inc. p25). Hmmm. He cites the modern dilemma between a highly effective but impermanent, unpredictable CEO v. more boring but stable, bureacratic, policy-based mgt.
(Here's a chart on the structure of the res publica, from tRW p18)
Roman citizens at first divided into Patricians (elites) and Plebeians (masses), but by 2C BC a 3rd class of Equites emerged, non-Patrician rich merchants (i.e. middle class, bourgeoisie). This is the era of the famous 'Struggle(s) of the Orders' (i.e. classes).
5C BC: Roman conquests begin, by 265 absorbed all of Italy south of Po Valley, 150yrs later Cisalpine Gaul, Carthage, Greek-ruled kingdoms of Macedonia, Seleucia, Egypt. "By the time Marius came to power 7 yrs before [Julius] Caesar's birth [c107 BC], the Mediterranean Sea had become, in effect, a Roman lake" (tIoJC p14).
Philip Matyszak's Chronicle of the Roman Republic: The Rulers of Ancient Rome from Romulus to Augustus details 57 leading men (track it down)
449 BC: Sabine tribe defeated
304 BC: Volsci tribe defeated
396 BC: Etruscans at Veii defeated
390 BC: Gauls attack Rome, paid to leave
343-290 BC: Samnites defeated
312 BC: "The first of the major Roman roads was the Via Appia, begun by Appius Claudius the Blind, consul in 312 BC" (tHoK p69).
280 BC: Romans lose to Greek King Purrhus w/his elephants, later overcome Greeks
264-41 BC: 1rst war w/Carthage (another 'world power' w/war-leader Hamilcar Barca)
221-02 BC: 2nd war w/Carthage (Hannibal defeated at Zama by Publius Cornelius Scipio)
149-6 BC: 3rd war w/Carthage (Scipio enslaves Carthage, makes it a Roman province)
Greeks threatened by Macedonia, ask Rome for help
196 BC: Rome defeats King Philip V of Macedonia (descendent of Alexander the Great?), Romans attack King Antiochus III of Syria
These imperial campaigns "brought about 2 problems. One was that many [conquered] people simply did not want to be Roman ... The other ... was that Rome ... gave or let [the conquered land] to rich farmers who formed it into huge ranch-style estates [villas]. Poor farmers often had land taken away ... farmworkers replaced by slave labor from foreign wars. In other words, there were more and more people becoming unemployed and poor. Many people left the countryside and settled in towns, esp. Rome, and then had to be fed by the govt ... Tiberius Gracchus became a tribine in 133 BC. He proposed to [fix this problem by giving] land to farmers in small plots ... [Patricians had him k., but his] reforms were taken up by his younger bro Gaius ... 124 BC elected tribune ... [xfr'd some power from Patricians to equites, hunted down, suicide, 3K followers executed [here emerge the 2 main political 'parties' populares and optimates]" (tRW p28-9).
"... the Gracchis, those notorious price-fixing, land-distributing tribunes who a century before Caesar introduced a fateful note of direct democracy into the Roman Republic ... Tiberius Gracchus [was] clubbed to death ... his brother Gaius [was] decapitated by thugs on the aristocrats' payroll, who then proceeded to pour molten lead into his skull and murder 3K of his followers without trial ... Roman ferocity" ("Crossing the Rubicon" Martha Bayles CRB Spring 06 p71).
157-86 BC: Gaius Marius (pic tRW p28), the first 'strong man' to challenge the Senate, appealed to popular support (i.e. populares party) v. elites (optimates party), elected 7x consul ('in 100 BC he was consul for the 6th time' p14), m. Julia, sister of Julius Caesar's father.
91 BC: Julius Caesar's uncle, Sextus Julius Caesar, elected consul
138-78 Lucius Cornelius Sulla (pic from JC p?), frmr asst of Marius, elected consul, switches sides from populares to optimates, then leaves Rome to put down a rebellion in Asia Minor. This switch infuriates Marius, who kills many of Sulla's supporters while he is gone, but dies suddenly in 86. Sulla returns 83 BC and ignites civil war, killing many populares and others, bloodbath, names himself dictator in 82, dies 78 (to general relief), Senate and consuls retake control of Rome.
76 BC: Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43), optimates star orator, elected quaestor, 1 of 20 financial administrators, advocate of ordered liberty, limited govt power ('the republican system ... [and] its laws and traditions' p19) and ardent foe (w/Marcus Cato) of Julius Caesar and populares (and other 'ambitious and power-hungry men' tIoJC p19), elected Senator in 74 BC, consul by 63 BC.
73 BC: Spartacus leads large-scale rebellion (~90K army), put down in 71 by strongmen Marcus Crassus ('wealthiest man in Rome') and Gnaeus Pompey (a leading general, pic from tIoJC p22), making them both national heroes.
63 BC: Lucius Sergius Catilina (aka Cataline) fails to win consulship (defeated by Cicero), in desperation (w/debts) he hatches a scheme to "kill the consuls (and many others) and seize control of the Roman govt" (p25). Caesar had won praetorship easily, but w/Crassus had supported Cataline. 5 Dec 63 the Senate met to decide his fate. Caesar recommended moderation (life in prison) but they chose execution (Cato's rec).
62 BC: Pompey returns to Rome from conquest, many fear he will attempt coup, but he instead disbands his army, but is snubbed by Senate (noticed by Caesar, humility doesn't pay). Senate later  also snubs Caesar.
60 BC: Caesar engrs secret alliance w/Pompey and Crassus, later called the First Triumvirate, allowing him to win (w/later marginalized Marcus Bibulus) consulship. Pompey m. Julia, Caesar's dau. They begin to use raw force or threats, bribes and fear ('like ruthless gangsters') to achieve their aims (mainly rewarding their supporters). Caesar then gains proconsulship (governorship) of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, allowing him to raise his own personal army and achieve many important conquests (Gaul, Brits).
53 BC: Crassus killed in Parthia
51 BC: By this time, Caesar's enemies had turned Pompey against him.
50 BC: The Senate demands Caesar surrender command of his army.
49 BC: Caesar defies them and 'crosses the Rubicon,' igniting civil war.
48 BC: Caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus, Pompey flees to Egypt where he is killed, Caesar meets Cleopatra and backs her in Egyptian civil war v. her bro Ptolemy, installing her in 47.
44 BC: Caesar becomes dictator for life, but is murdered by Senators 15 Mar.
43 BC: Mark Antony, Marcus Lepidus, Octavian [Caesar's adopted son] form 2nd Triumvirate.
27 BC: After defeating his fellow triumvirs, Octavian becomes Augustus Caesar, 1rst RE, "an autocratic state built largely on Caesar's blueprint for a benevolent dictatorship" (tIoJC p8).
The Julio-Claudian Dynasty: RE1-5 (Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, CRE p14)
1 Augustus (Octavius) 27 BC - AD 14 (Varus defeated at Teutoberg Forest 9 AD, commits suicide, "emperors went downhill [in quality] quickly after Augustus" DtH 2/12)
|2 Tiberius 14-37 "a dark, depressed, isolated, generally awkward ruler" (DtH 2/12). "(42 BC Rome - AD 37) 4yrs after birth his mother divorced his father and m. Octavianus ... who carefully educated him. The boy early showed intellectual power and military skill ... [55yo at accession] early part of reign a period of generally good govt; latter part notable for series of conspiracies and consequent executions. Coldness, reserve, suspicious nature, strong desire for economy in govt rendered him unpopular, even hated among people. On the whole just and beneficent reign, esp. in provinces. In latter reign Jesus was crucified, Christian church born at Pentecost" (WBDC, pic).||
Tiberius in old age, a portrait bust from the Capitoline Museum (CRE p35)
Tiberius (FoRE p46)
|3 Caligula 37-41, demented and cruel, assassinated for it (tAR p62). "a raving mad lunatic with excessive cruelty and unprecedented sexual perversity" (DtH 2/12, pic)).||
|4 Claudius 41-54 "addicted to gladitorial games, with a fondness for watching executions and given to bouts of rage and cruelty" (DtH 2/12). "I, Claudius (1976), the BBC's brilliant adaptation of the Robert Graves novel about the vexed problem of succession under the first 4 emperors" (CRB Spring 06 p72, pic)).||
bust of Claudius found in a British river (IRB p74)
Claudius (tRW p?)
|5 Nero 54-68, infamous, "among other outrages, k. his own wife and mother" (tAR p47). Last of the Julian emperors, his reign [esp. after his friend and advisor Seneca committed suicide] "made his predecessors look like Mr. Rogers ... a monstrous disaster, arguably the darkest spot in Rome's entire history" (DtH 2/12). "Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus (37-68) ... b. Anzio on Latium coast. Nephew of Caligula, gggson of Augustus. In 49 Nero's mother m. her uncle, [RE4] Claudius, who adopted her son, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, name changed to N C C D G (above). In 53 AD, at age 16, Nero m. Octavia, dau of Claudius, and the next yr upon d. of Claudius was chosen RE by both Senate and provinces. 1rst 5 yrs of reign were called the golden quinquennium Neronis. The philosophy and guidance of his teacher [and friend] Seneca bore fruits for awhile. But in 55 he caused d. of his step-bro Britannicus. By 59 his vanity, selfishness, cruelty apparent to all. k. his mother, Agrippina, his wife, Octavia, and later his teacher, Seneca, by ordering his suicide. Also k. 2nd wife Poppea and many others. By 61 empire was in turmoil; British insurrection, Parthian [in Armenia] war. In 64 2/3 of Rome burned, Nero usually blamed, he deflected blame to Christians, persecuted w/fury, madness, 1rst great Roman persecution of Christians, both Peter and Paul martyred. Nero rebuilt lavishly [esp. his palace], free grain to populace, paid by plundering empire; many conspiracies, murders, until in 68 the Gallic, Spanish legions, Praetorian Guard rose against him and Nero fled. Senate declared him a public enemy, he avoided capture, execution by suicide [stabbed himself in neck, DtH]" (WBDC, pic).||
The Civil War of 69: RE6-8 (Galba, Otho, Vitellius, CRE p14)
6 Galba 68-9 (pic)
7 Otho 69 (pic)
8 Vitellius 69 (pic)
The Flavian Dynasty: RE9-11 (Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, CRE p14)
10 Titus 79-81 (pic)
11 Domitian 81-96 "or Titus Flavius Domitianus Augustus (51-96) b. Rome, 2nd son of Vespasian, younger bro of Titus, 1rst RE to deify himself during his lifetime assuming title 'Lord and God,' [presided over] 2nd great persecution of Christians. His own niece Flavia Domitilla was banished [c95], and her husband, the consul Flavius Clemens, cousin of Domitian, was k. for his faith. Also exiled apostle John, bishop of Ephesus, to Patmos [Island], where he remained until after D's d. The tyrant was assassinated, senate ordered his infamous name erased from all public documents" (WBDC, pic)
The Adoptive Emperors and The Antonine Dynasty: RE12-17 (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Commodus, CRE p84)
12 Nerva 96-8 (pic)
"The Pax Romana was also the era in which Roman civilization attained its greatest size and political influence. Most of Augustus's immediate successors were thoughtful, effective rulers who brought peace and economic stability to the Roman world. And the 5 emperors who ruled from 96 to 180 - Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius - were so capable and enlightened that history later accorded them the collective title of the '5 good emperors'" (tAR p37). The people expected emperors to live up to certain responsibilities; "to be 'pious in the service of the gods, just in dealings with subjects, strong and victorious in the face of the enemy, but merciful after victory; he must be temperate and kind ... love peace and concord' Accordingly, most of the few emperors who did lapse into tyranny, notorious characters like Caligula, Nero, Domitian, and Commodus, provoked public outrage, had short reigns, and met violent ends" (tAR p61).
Pastor Darryl, in his 20 May 2007 sermon, wondered if the many evil political leaders throughout history (e.g. Caligula, Nero, Domitian, Decius, also mentioned Cyrus the Great, Alexander the Great and his 4 succeeding generals, Antiochus Epiphanes [defiled Temple]) were allowed by God to forshadow, give us a taste of (but on a smaller scale) what antichrist will be like; men acting as if they are gods, demanding for themselves god-like glory. Hmmm.
Writeups (and pics of coins, statue) on the first "12 Caesars" are available at www.accla.org/actaaccla/juliuscaesar.html (sub other names).
13 Trajan 98-117, pic in Grant's Hist of Rome, His reign "coincided w/the apex of Roman territorial power" (63). Gibbon "believed that the apex not just of Roman but of world history had been reached during the Age of the Antonines, the period of 82 yrs from the accession of Trajan to the death of Marcus Aurelius," few troubles, prosperous and happy, "Above all, Antoninus, a modest and intelligent man, obeyed the laws as if he were not an all-powerful tyrant but a public citizen" (p64, History of Knowledge, Charles Van Doren, 1991, FHL). St. Ignatius, held by tradition to be the 1rst Christian to die in the Colesseum c107, under Trajan (pic and story tAR p74). "or Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (52-117) b. Italica, near Seville, son of Roman commander, 1rst provincial to become Caesar. Good soldier, statesman, administrator. Adopted 97 AD by Nerva. Expanded empire N (Dacia) and E (Armenia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, furthest E so far). Known for building roads, other useful works in provinces, est. libraries, etc. Mostly tolerant, but punished refusal to worship him/state. 112 letters from Pliny the Younger, gov. of Pontus, Bithynia in Asia Minor [Turkey], Ignatius of Antioch, Simeon of Jerusalem martyred during his reign, Trajan d. Cilicia on conquest" (WBDC).
14 Hadrian 117-38 (pic tRW p35), built Hadrian's Wall between N Britain and Scotland (protection against barbarian Caledonian marauders). "or Publius Aelius Hadrianus (76-138) b. Spain, accompanied Trajan in wars, though a trained soldier, loved peace, spent much time touring provinces, consolidating empire. Prudently abandoned far E territory beyond Euphrates [impractical], c132-5 suppressed Jewish revolt (response to Roman colony, outlawed circumcision). Protected Christians against popular outbursts of fury but continued Trajan's policy of punishing all who were convicted by due process" (WBDC).
15 Antoninus Pius 138-61, well-loved, humble. "originally Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (86-161) made consul 120, adopted by Hadrian 138, known for wisdom, clemency. Avoided war except in Britain (extended Romanitas, built another wall 140-2). Marcion, Gnostics flourished during his reign. Followed Trajan, Hadrian in forbidding mob violence, punishing Christians only after due process. Polycarp martyred during reign [or RE16?]" (WBDC).
16 Marcus Aurelius 161-80, Gibbon saw his death as "beginning of the end of Roman greatness" (HoK p64). "Last of the so-called good emperors" (tAR p49). The years 30 BC to 180 AD are seen as the Pax Romana, a period of relative peace and prosperity, after which the Roman Empire "suffers under the strain of terrible political upheaval and civil strife, prompting later historians to call this period [235-84] Rome's 'century of crisis' or 'the anarchy'" (tAR p108), ended by Diocletian's reforms. "M A Antoninus (121-180) nickname Caracalla, b. Rome, fine education, committed Stoic, accession at d. of uncle RE15, forced to focus on protecting borders against barbarian invasion, firm but fair, one of the best pagan REs, persecution worse in provinces, martyrs Justin Martyr in Rome, Polycarp of Smyrna [or RE15?], Pothinus of Gaul" (WBDC). Lucius Verus co-ruler 161-9 (CRE p84).
The movie Gladiator (2000) was "Ridley Scott's hugely popular film about a power struggle between Maximus, a fictional general chosen by the emperor Marcus Aurelius to succeed him, and Commodus, the emperor's sick kitty of a son ... [he adds] a smidgeon of politics [in] a senator named Gracchus (get it?) who 220 yrs after the death of Julius Caesar still dreams of restoring the Republic" (CRB Spring 06 p71, see above).
17 Commodus 180-92
The Civil War of 193: RE18-9 (Pertinax, Didius Julianus, CRE p84)
18 Pertinax 193
19 M(arcus?) Didius S(extus?) Julianus 193
The Severan Dynasty: RE20-24 (Septimus Severus, Caracalla (Geta 211), Macrinus, Elagabulus, Alexander Severus, CRE p84)
20 Septimius Severus 193-211 (pic from ebcc p15, photo credit to Sonia Halliday)
21a Geta 211 (k. by bro Caracalla)
21b Caracalla 211-7
22 Macrinus 217-8
23 Elagabalus 218-22
24 Severus Alexander 222-35
The Time of Chaos: RE25-41 (Maximinus Thrax, Gordian I, II, Pupienus and Balbinus 238, Gordian III, Philip the Arab, Decius, Trebonianus Gallus, Aemilius Aemilianus, Valerian, Gallienus, Claudius II, Quintillus, Aurelian, Tacitus, Florianus, Probus, Carus, Numerian, Carinus)
"Unable to deal with so many internal and external threats and problems simultaneously, Rome's military and administrative structure eventually buckled. The result was a period of near-anarchy, some 50 years of chaos and civil war that almost destroyed the Empire. On the political front, between 235 and 284, more than 50 rulers claimed the throne, only half of whom were legally recognized, and all but one died by assassination or other violent means" (tAR p77).
Gordian II (CRE p162)
Pupienus (top), Balbinus (bottom) (CRE p163)
25 Maximinus Thrax 235-8, the biggest RE at 8' 6"
26-7 Gordian I and II 238 (also Pupienus and Balbinus 238)
28 Gordian III 238-44
29 Philippus (aka Philip the Arab) 244-9
30 Decius 249-51 "or Gaius Messius Quintas Trajanus, b. at Budalia, near Sirmium in lower Pannonia. Military background, sought to restore old paganism and [accompanying] political absolutism, soon realized Christianity was a formidable adversary, so determined to destroy it. Began in 250 the 1rst empire-wide persecution, all-out effort to eradicate it. Origen severely tortured in prison at Caesarea, later died of the injuries, Cyprian of Carthage evaded capture by hiding, persecution suddenly ceased when Decius was k. in Thrace in battle w/Goths (251), but renewed w/great vigor under Valerian in 257, at which time Cyprian was martyred. Many Christians caved under the pressure of these 2 persecutions, leading to the Novatian schism (over whether to accept them back into the church) which plagued the RCC for several centuries" (WBDC).
31 (Trebonianus) Gallus 251-3
32 (Aemilius) Aemilianus 253
33 Valerian 253-60 "or Publius Licinius Valerianus 193-c269, enthroned by army, reinstated Decius' persecution 257, captured by Persian King in war, held prisoner til d." (WBDC).
34 Gallienus 253-8
35 Claudius II Gothicus 268-70 (Quintillus 270)
"However, beginning in the year 268, a series of strong military leaders took control of the Roman state, and in one of the most remarkable reversals in history, the stubborn and resilient Romans were able to regain the initiative. In the span of about 16 years, these rulers, including Claudius II, Aurelian, Probus, and Carus, managed to push back the Germans and also to defeat illegal imperial claimants in various parts of the realm. With the Empire's borders under control and minimal domestic order restored, in 284 a remarkably intelligent and capable man assumed the throne. He was Diocletian, who, like Augustus had 3 centuries before, took on the arduous task of completely reorganizing the Roman state after a period of serious disorders ... more orderly ... [but] less prosperous, optimistic, more regimented, grimmer" (tAR p79).
36 Aurelian 270-7
37 Tacitus 275-6
38 Florian(us) 276
39 Probus 276-82
40 Carus 282-3
41 Carinus (West) 283-4
41 Numerianus (Numerian, East) 283-4
(Meanwhile) The Gallic Empire: RE? (Postumus 260-9, Laelianus 269, Marius 269, Victorinus 268-71, Tetricus 271-4, CRE p158)
The Empire Restored: RE42a-44b (Diocletian, Maximian, Constantius I [Chlorus], Galerius, Severus II, Maxentius, Maximinus Daia, Constantine, Licinius, CRE p158)
42a Diocletian (E) 284-305, "or Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus c245-313, b. Salona in Dalmatia, reinstated absolute monarchy, appt. Maximian co-emp and Galerius, Chorus as assts. (Caesars) 292, i.e. the 'tetrarchy'. Moved capital from Rome to Nicodemia, empire divided into 4 parts, w/RCC's growing power/influence, he realized it must either be forced to submit or made an ally, chose former (Constantine chose latter), Fanatically pagan Galerius sought RCC's destruction. In 303, the last and severest persecution against Christians began suddenly and violently. Many caved. Donatism later sought purity by refusing their reentry into RCC. Galerius/Constantine issued 311 Edict of Toleration. After a prosperous reign of 20yrs, weary of responsibilities, Diocletian abdicated 305" (WBDC). Diocletian initiated sweeping political, economic, and social reforms, in effect reconstructing the Empire under a new blueprint. Historians generally refer to this new realm as the Later Empire" (tAR p108). He harshly persecuted Christians (e.g. St. George). "As early as 286 the Emperor Diocletian [having decided to share ruling power] ... raised an old comrade-in-arms named Maximian to share his throne. He ... based ... at Nicomedia ... Maximian ... at Milan ... before long, however, Diocletian decided to split the imperial power still further by appointing 2 'Caesars' - generals who, while remaining junior to himself and Maximian ('Augusti'), would also exercise supreme authority in their allotted territories and would ultimately inherit [the Augusti position] ... One of these first Caesars, a rough, brutal professional soldier from Thrace named Galerius, was given charge of the Balkans; the other, to be based in Gaul but with special responsibility for the reimposition of Roman rule in rebellious Britain, was Constantius Chlorus" (Byz p44ff, see REConst).
42b Maximian (W) 286-305, 307-8, fellow soldier of Diocletian, named co-Augustus
43a Constantius I Chlorus 305-6 (see DOKA)
43b Galerius 305-11 "or Valerius Maximianus, b. of humble parentage near Sardica in Dacia [Romania], rose in army, m. Diocletian's dau Valeria, ruled Illyria. Upon Chlorus' d. in 306, son Constantine became joint emperor w/Galerius, 5yrs later on his deathbed, he coissued (w/Constantine, Licinius) Edict of Toleration 311 [apparently forced by Constantine]" (WBDC).
RE? Severus II 306-7 (CRE p158)
43c Maxentius 306-12, son of Maximian
43d Maximinus Daia 310-3 (CRE p158)
RE44a B1 Constantine the Great 307-37 (a brit?, full name Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, son (in-law) of Maximian, defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge 312, defeated Licinius 324, moved capital Rome to Byzantium 330, new city called Constantinople, renamed Istanbul 1930, ended Roman persecution of Christians, called Nicene Council 325, at death in 337, empire divided among his 3 sons; Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, Arch of Constanine in Rome built 315 to honor his victory over Maxentius). Carried on reforms begun by Diocletian; issues Edict of Milan 313, est. Constantinople 330 (tAR p108). "c280-337 b. Naissus in Upper Moesia [Serbia], Maxentius rebelled, defeated 311, at which Constantine saw cross, 'By This Conquer', generally supported Christianity, but maintain pagan title Pontifex Maximus til the last, finally baptized on deathbed" (WBDC).
44b Licinius (E) 308-24
45a B2 Constantine II 337-40, son of Constantine, eldest b317, invaded Constans in Italy 340, but ambushed and killed near Aquileia (Byz p81).
The Heirs of Constantine: RE45a-47 (Constantine II, Constans I, Constantius II, Julian, Jovian, CRE p222)
RE45b B3 (joint) B5 (sole) Constantius (II) 337-61, son of Constantine, at first pretended to be mild, but once named Augustus, "he abruptly shed the mild-mannered mask" (Byz p80) and went on a murderous rampage against contenders in 337, appointed Gallus Caesar of East 350/1, appointed Flavius Claudius Julianus (aka Julian the Apostate, philosopher, scholar) Caesar over Gaul 355, d. 3 Nov 361 of fever on his way back from campaigning against Persia to face rebelling Julian's western army.
45c B4 Constans 337-50, son of Constantine, "a minister of unspeakable depravity and a leader in avarice and contempt for his soldiers" (Byz p82). 18 Jan 350 a chief minister gave a banquet in Autun, at which "a pagan officer of British extraction named Magnentius donned the imperial purple and was acclaimed Emperor by his [peers] ... Constans [fled], but was quickly captured and put to death" (Byz p82). Magnentius was defeated by Constantius 351 and 2 yrs later "fell on his sword" (82).
45d Silvanus, hmmm, AMF p28 see below: "Silvanus, military commander in Gaul during the 350s and the first Frank before Charlemagne to become emperor, albeit by forcibly removing the reigning Constantius II"
RE46 B6 Julian 361-3 the Apostate, Gibbon's hero in DFRE, who "believed Rome could not survive Constantine's embrace of a Christianity that forswore the martial virtues for 'Love thy neighbor'" (WtRWW, Buchanan, p2). Author of hisc (Thomas Cahill) also drew attention to Gibbon's charge against Christianity; said all Christians should read and ponder it. Charles Van Doren (in History of Knowledge, 1991, FHL) has an interesting take: Why, he asks, did the fall of Rome cause hundreds of yrs of decline before recovery (he has in mind 500-1000 AD, p90)? He gives many examples of cultures that recovered quickly from catastrophe (w/in a generation). His answer is that because Christians in the West had "embraced a new way of life, they did not seem to regret what they had lost (e.g. Rodney Stark's 'good riddance'); they hardly seemed to remember it [i.e. Roman "dedication to power, wealth, worldly success [i.e. materialism] ... obsessed by health, diet and exercise" 95]. Despite their poverty and fear, Christians looked forward to something they had never been able to see clearly before [i.e. Augustine's 'City of God' v. the Roman 'City of Man'], because its light had been obscured by the blaze of Roman greatness" (95). He argues we in the West have by now become like the Romans, i.e. "proud, greedy, vain" (96). For a time, the Benedictines were content w/the simple, contemplative life (i.e. 'poverty, prayer, good works' 96 or 'poverty, chastity, obedience'), but after expecting the end c1000 AD (frightened, nervous), "when nothing terrible happened, they drew a collective sigh of relief and set about rebuilding their new version of the old Roman empire. We live in it today" (97). So he basically agrees w/Gibbon that, because of Christian belief, Rome didn't quickly recover from the barbarian onslaught as other societies had from similar catastrophes, but instead of calling it 'weakness' as Gibbon did he admires it and calls it spiritually enlightened. Hmmm. He further asserts that feudalism didn't have to happen; it did only because Christians were 'obsessed' w/God and otherworldly, so "for centuries the most intelligent, imaginative [creative], and hardworking minds of western Christendom" were sidetracked (101, i.e. 'so heavenly minded they were of no earthly good', he sums it up pp108-9). Anyway, Julian promoted paganism and suppressed Christianity, but too late; it was already too ingrained, he died campaigning against Persia (seeing himself the heir of Pompey, Trajan, Septimus Severus, even Alexander the Great, Byz p97) at the Battle of Ctesiphon 29 May 363, while retreating under fire, he jumped into battle, not even "pausing to strap on his breastplate ... a flying spear struck him in the side [liver]" (98). "As an Emperor he was a failure ... and yet, of all the 88 Emperors of Byzantium, it is Julian who, more than any other ... has caught the imagination of posterity" (Byz 98-9, duh, because of his oh-so-fashionable anti-Christian, pagan secularism). JJN praises his intelligence, education, culture, energy, industry, courage, integrity, incorruptibility, service ethic, but says he had 2 major faults; religious [i.e. pagan] fanaticism and 'a certain lack of sharpness and definition in his thinking' (Byz 99). "or Flavius Claudius Julianus b. Constantinople c331, nephew of Constantine, Christian training and baptism but before age 25 became deeply interested in Greek and other pagan philosophies, early military success, named Caesar 355; alarmed [at Julian's success, popularity] Constantius tried to peel away some of Julian's troops, but they revolted, Julian entered Constantinople as undisputed emperor 361, sought to repaganize empire, short 18mo reign" (WBDC).
RE47 B7 Jovian 363-4, at Julian's death, the army chose Jovian, a popular Christian commander, known for his penchant for wine and women (Byz 101), unexceptional, found dead in his bedroom 16 Feb 364, ascribed to indigestion, over-imbibing or charcoal asphixiation, "Surprisingly enough, foul play was not suspected" (Byz 104). His reign had "marked the restitution of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, but ... also ... the end of [the] dynasty ... of Constantius Chlorus ... the diadem was once again a prize open to all" (Byz 104). "or Flavius Claudius Jovianus b. Singidunum, Pannonia [now Belgrade, Serbia] c332, proclaimed emperor by army, hasty treaty w/Persians, explicitly Christian [restored chi-rho on imperial standard, sided w/Nicene party, Athanasius] but tolerant toward pagans, neoPlatonists, Arians, reintroduced religious freedom of Constantine's Edict of Milan" (WBDC).
The House of Valentinian: RE48a-49b (E: Valens, W: Val I, Gratian, Val II, Eugenius, CRE p222)
RE48a B8 Valentinian I (W) 364-75, unanimous choice of army, Orthodox Christian, uncouth, illiterate, ill-tempered, named his younger brother Valens co-Augustus (104). Later (367) named his son Gratian co-Augustus. Pinned down in Gaul, so sent his trusted General Theodosius to deal w/Picts, Scots invastion in Britain, which he did w/spectacular success by 370. 17 Nov 375 he was so upset by the Quadi (Danube tribe) revolt, he turned purple and 'fell forward in a fit of apoplexy' and died (106). On his deathbed, had another son Valentinian II named co-Emperor w/Gratian. "On his death, the Empire theoretically had 3 rulers to carry on the govt; a malformed, middle-aged sadist utterly devoid of wisdom or judgement [Valens], a delightful boy of 16 [Gratian] and a child scarcely out of its cradle [4yo Valentinian II] ... at a critical moment ... a year [later] ... confronting ... the Huns" (Byz p106).
RE48b B9 Valens (E) 364-78, k. by Goths/Alani (under Fritigern) at Adrianople 9 Aug 378, Arian Christian, grotesque in appearance, brutal but lacking courage, ability. Responded harshly to Procopius revolt. k. at Adrianople 9 Aug 378.
RE49a B10 Gratian (W) 375-83, 19yo at Valens' death, all now depended on him (108). Pinned down in West, sent for Theodosius (son of the Pict/Scot defeater), who was named co-Augustus (E) Jan 379. Gratian was a fervent Nicene Christian, 1rst to refuse Pontifex Maximus title, well-read, a passionate poet, superb athlete, inspired leader, but at age 24, already growing lazy, "no longer attempted to conceal the predilection he felt for the barbarian element in the army (and particularly for his own personal guard of tall, blond Alani) whom he openly favored [over Romans]. Matters came to a head when one of the imperial generals serving in Britain, Magnus Clemens Maximus, was suddenly acclaimed Augustus by his men ... his army met Gratian's just outside Paris ... the Emperor would probably have won the day had not his Moorish cavalry suddenly ... defected to Maximus ... he was murdered 25 Aug" (109-10).
RE49b usurper Magnus Clemens Maximus "r" 25 Aug 383 to 388
The Theodosian Dynasty: RE49c-53 (Theodosius I, E: Arcadius, Theodosius II, W: Honorius, Johannes, Val III, CRE p222)
RE49c B11 (joint) B13 (sole) Theodosius I 379-95, at Gratian's death, he was busy w/Persians and Huns, so reluctantly ack'd usurper Maximus, "as did most of the provinces of the West" (110, except Italy, where 12yo Valentinian II set up rule, under guidance of his mother Justina [Arian] and Bishop Ambrose). In 387 Maximus invaded Italy "ostensibly to deliver the Empire from the taint of [Arian] heresy" (110). In June 388 Theodosius and Valentinian II pursued and defeated Maximus (k. by soldiers), appointing Arbogast Comes [gov.] of Gaul. 390: famous confrontation in Milan between Theodosius, Ambrose (i.e. murder of Botheric at Thessalonica, Theodosius' overreaction, 7K killed). "or Flavius Theodosius b. c346, upon d. of father returned to family estate in Spain, but recalled by Gratian to public svc, bap. 380, supported orthodoxy, suppressed heresy [paganism, Arianism, Manichaeism, ...], ruled w/justice, deep convictions, but also some cruelty" (WBDC).
RE49d B12 Valentinian II (W, replaced Gratian) 375-92, junior ruler (W) w/Theodosius (E), 391 Arbogast refuses to yield, kills 21yo Valentinian 15 May 392 (? found dead in his apartment).
RE? Eugenius (usurper) 392-4 (CRE p222)
RE49e Arbogast, pagan, see AMF p28 see below: "Arbogast, military commander in the W [Gaul] after 388, who, having slain the W Emperor, Valentinian II, expected the E Emperor, Theodosius the Great, to make him new emperor in his place [actually he knew he, a pagan, couldn't be named, but he picked a Christian puppet named Eugenius]. Theodosius refused ... Arbogast's army, the true ruler in the W, recognized their commander's own pliant choice, a politically inexperienced teacher of rhetoric, as new emperor" [Eugenius] Arbogast was later k. by Theodosius' order (armies met 5 Sep 394 near Trieste, Eugenius k., Arbogast 'fell on sword' a few days later).
RE49c B13 Theodosius I 'the Great' 379-95 (pic tAR p86, "last sole ruler of W and E"), born in Spain, became famous as a soldier in Britain ... in 378 RE Gratian[us] asked him to become co-ruler of eastern provinces ... had to deal immediately w/Goths, who had killed RE Valens and destroyed a large part of the Roman army. In 383, General Magnus Clemens Maximus murdered Gratian and seized the throne. 5 yrs later (388) Theodosius overthrew Maximus and made Gratian's son Valentinian II ruler in the West. In 390, Thessalonica revolted, Theodosius brutally put it down, killing 7K, later made public penance, he was a Christian, influenced by Bishop Ambrose of Milan, at his death, divided RE between his 2 sons; Honorius in the West and Arcadius in the East (WB). d. 17 Jan 395 age 50 of 'sickness'. Feb 380 declared Nicene faith 'Catholic' (first use of term [Byz p117], others heretics) and in 381 called 1rst Council of Constantinople (held at St. Irene church, condemned Arianism). 392 "outlawed every form of pagan worship, public and private, throughout the Empire" (118). When Theodosius died, Arcadius was not yet 18, Honorius 10. "The care of both he therefore entrusted to his nephew-by-marriage Stilicho" (120).
Here's Ozment's explanation of how the [German] 'barbarians' arrived 'over the top' in control of the Roman Empire (after his sections 'Romanizing Germans' and 'Barbarizing Rome': "In the 2nd half of the 4C, 2 Romanized Franks, each holding the highest Roman military rank of army commander, magister militum, usurped the thrones of the emperors they served. The first was Silvanus, military commander in Gaul during the 350s and the first Frank before Charlemagne to become emperor, albeit by forcibly removing the reigning Constantius II. The 2nd imperial usurper, bolder still, was Arbogast, military commander in the West after 388, who, having slain the western emperor, Valentinian II, expected the eastern emperor, Theodosius the Great, to make him new emperor in his place. Theodosius refused on the grounds that Arbogast was a Frank and a pagan. In response Arbogast's army, the true ruler in the West, recognized their commander's own pliant choice, a politically inexperienced teacher of rhetoric [who?], as new emperor ... Sylvanus [was] slain by his own soldiers and Arbogast [was killed] at the instruction of Theodosius ... [later] 2 Germans ... presided over the most decisive phase of [Rome's] fall ... Romanized half-Vandal Stilicho (pic from DOKA) [and] Visigoth Alaric. Stilicho commanded the Imperial Army of the West and was virtual emperor there, while Alaric's lineage reached back to the Balths (the Bold), an ancient Germanic royal family [see Jordenes' History of the Goths]. Stilicho's father had been a Vandal cavalry officer in the Imperial Army of the East, and his mother was a native Roman ... he rose to marry the adopted niece of Emperor Theodosius ... [later made] regent for [Theodosius'] 10yo son, Honorius, future emperor of the West, who would in turn ... marry 2 of Stilicho's daughters [Maria in 400 and, after her death, Thermantia in 408]. Had invading Goths not spoiled their plans, Honorius' sister, Galla Placidia, betrothed to Stilicho's son, Eucherius, would have added still another dynastic link to this deeply intertwined Roman-Vandal family ... [Stilicho and Alaric clashed in 392, but Rome needed Alaric's military support] ... In 394 [Alaric's] forces joined those of Emperor Theodosius in punishing Arbogast at the Battle of Frigid River (in what is now Slovenia) ... [the Goths were upset at still being treated as 2nd-class citizens, so they rampaged. Meanwhile] Theodosius had died, and Stilicho, now regent, commanded both imperial armies, East and West, ... the world's most powerful man ... [he tried unsuccessfully to appease Alaric, but Alaric demanded huge payments] In 408 a Gothic rival of Alaric and recent affiliate of Emperor Honorius, Sarus, toppled and executed the half-Vandal Stilicho [which] released pent-up Roman resentment and moved the Roman senate to its own barbarous revenge: a massacre of thousands of barbarians living peacefully in Italy ... [this provoked 3 Gothic sacks of Rome, and Roman acknowledgement of the] prefect Attalus as new emperor in Honorius' place [and promoted Alaric to commander of East/West Roman Armies, Alaric had hoped to create a new united Goth-Roman state (in which Goths and Romans were seen as equal), but that dream was killed forever when Attalus and Sarus joined anti-barbarian Romans against Alaric, leading the the famous 3rd 3-day sack in Aug 410, Alaric's bro-in-law Athaulf taking 16yo Galla Placidia as prisoner] What a prize she was for the tribe: the gdau of RE Valentinian I, dau of Theodosius the Great (the last RE to rule over both East and West), and the sister of ... Honorius. In addition, she had grown up in the custody of her half-sister Serena who was Stilicho's wife [she was also carrying the baby of Constantius, Stilicho's successor as western military commander and future emperor, bore a son to Athaulf who dy, later m. RE Constantius c416, and] in the 420s, a widowed regent for her 6yo son Valentinian III, reigned as virtual empress of Rome" (A Mighty Fortress, Steven Ozment, 2004, p28, [Mustang]).
... East/West split, with East becoming Byzantium (see)
Emperors of the West:|
"After the death of Emp Theodosius in 395, divisions between the Latin and Greek halves of the empire became more evident ... [see REConst.html for more] ... [For awhile] Italy and the imperial court at Ravenna felt little direct effect from [barbarian incursions]. This immunity was the achievement of 2 cincs, Constantius and Aetius, 'the last of the Romans', who manipulated the invaders in order to shore up the tottering empire. Aetius' balancing act failed when his Hun allies turned against him and invaded N Italy. The empire became the plaything of autocratic factions and in 476 the boy-emp, Romulus ... was deposed by Odoacer ... In Italy [itself] a complex civilian society remained intact, and the senatorial aristocracy maintained its privileged position, including its vast landholdings, its monopoly of lucrative governorships, and the cultivated literary life of its salons. In Gaul [in contrast, many Romans eventually had to evacuate], the withering away of the empire left the senators as the main symbol of Roman legitimacy, while relieving them of the burdens of imperial rule. Gradually, however, they found their political and social position marginalized [e.g. Clovis defeating Syagrius] ... the Ostrogoth king Theodoric ... combined capable war-ldrship and an appreciation of [romanitas] ... [but] towards the end of his reign ... fears concerning the succession [i.e. nostaligic yearning of conservative senators for Roman rule] and the diplomatic noose which the Byzantines were tightening around his kingdom [i.e. reconciliation between RCC and the aggressively orthodox emps of the E] gave rise to suspicions of treasonable negotiations [by some of those senators] with Constantinople, which in turn led to the notorious episode of the arrest and execution of the philosopher [and senators] Boethius [and his father in law Symmachus] ... [in the 5C] the E seemed destined to [follow the W into decline, but] gradually [its] underlying advantages enabled it to emerge from its difficulties as a resilient and cohesive society. The impression that emerges is one of a consensus around the ideal of a God-appointed Christian empire" (OIH pp1-7).
Honorius (CRE p229, 'To our Lord Honorius the Eternal Emperor')
50 Honorius 395-423, son of Theodosius I, "from the moment of his death the W Empire embarks on its inexorable 80yr decline" (Byz p119). 401 Alaric the Goth invades Italy, 410 sacks Rome. "The greatest of all the Gothic leaders ... not fundamentally hostile to the Roman Empire ... [on the] contrary: [he] fought not to overthrow the Empire, but to establish a permanent home for his people within it ... If only the W Emperor and the Roman Senate could have understood this simple fact, they might still have averted the final catastrophe" (Byz 127). Honorius' only apparent interest was raising poultry (128). The Goths were met by Stilicho near Pollentia on Easter 402, and again at Verona (3x Stilicho let them go?!). E/W relations were failing, largely owing to St. John Chrysostom, Bishop of Constantinople, and his scorching criticism of the Byzantine court and Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria. At John's death in Sep 407, this split convinced Stilicho that the time was ripe to implement his plan to remove the Balkans [Illyricum] from E and add them to W (w/Alaric's help). But a rumor rose that Alaric was dead, also Constantinus, Roman Gov. of Britain, had declared himself Augustus and crossed into Gaul. At this time (May 408), Arcadius died, leaving E to his 7yo son Theodosius II. But one Olympius (called a villain by Zosimus) convinced Honorius that Stilicho was plotting treason, and he was put to death 23 Aug 408 at Ravenna (132). At his death, "all the pent-up hatred of Roman for barbarian suddenly found its release" (133). So, the W Romans not only lost a great commander (no replacement) but also incited the barbarians against them. These led to Rome's sack 410, followed shortly after by Alaric's death by fever. Honorius d. of dropsy 26 Aug 423 age 40.
51 Constantius III 423, m. Galla Placidia, dau of Theodosius the Great, gdau of Valentinian I, half-sis of Honorius, she'd been taken hostage by Goths and m. 414 Alaric's bro Ataulfus, on latter's death 415 she'd returned to Ravenna, "where, in 417, reluctantly but at her brother's [Honorius] insistence, she took his closest adviser, a dark, swarthy Illyrian named Constantius, as her 2nd husband ... sulky, darting eyes, seems to have genuinely loved [her] ... 2 children; Honoria, Valentinian III ... in 421 Constantius was raised to be co-Emperor w/Honorius, Placidia herself being named Augusta" (Byz 143, Theodosius II didn't accept these).
52 Johannes 423-5 (usurper), at Honorius' death, "the empty throne had been seized by a certain Johannes, erstwhile holder of the not very illustrious office of ... Chief of the Notaries ... Theodosius ... acted swiftly [to counter this] ... he confirmed Placidia [as] Augusta, invested Valentinian III [as] Caesar [and prepared to attack]" (Byz 144). Johannes defeated 425, brought to Aquileia and killed.
53 Valentinian III 425-55, 6yo in 425, " a weak and ineffectual figure, utterly dominated by his formidable mother Placidia" (151). His sis Honoria actually offered herself in marriage to Attila the Hun, who became king of Huns 434. Probably most feared man ever in Europe, maybe except Napoleon. In "summer of 451 and again in 452, the whole fate of western civilization hung in the balance. Had the Huns not been halted in these 2 campaigns, had it toppled Valentinian III ... there is little doubt that both Gaul and Italy would have been reduced to spiritual and cultural deserts, just as surely and completely as the Balkans were reduced by the Ottomans 1K yrs later" (Byz 157). He was turned back at Orleans 451 by Roman general Aetius, effective ruler of Gaul. In 452, Aetius again prepared to meet him (w/o barbarian help), but Attila halted. Why? Much debated. Pope Leo? (159). Attila d. 453 of a sudden hemorrhage (stroke). Mar 455 Val III rode out of Rome to do some archery practice, k. by 2 barbarian soldiers (his own bodyguards did nothing). His own fault, since a few months before, Val had k. Aetius (effective ruler of W for 30yrs, 160) in a similar fashion for wanting his son to marry a dau of Val. No doubt Aetius' friends sought revenge. Since Val left no son, the army picked Petronius Maximus. Val III aka "Flavius Placidius Valentinianus b419 Ravenna, in 445 recognized Bishop of Rome [Leo I the Great at the time] as primary Church authority [bolstered papal authority, supremacy], called ecumenical council of Chalcedon in 415" (WBDC).
The Last Western Emperors: RE54-62 (Petronius Maximus, Avitus, Majorian, Severus III, Anthemius, Olybrius, Glycerius, Julius Nepos, Romulus Augustulus, CRE p222)
54 Petronius Maximus 455, picked by the army, an elderly senator, generally believed to be the gson of the usurper Maximus ... lacked political judgement and human sensitivity. When he tried to marry the beautiful Eudoxia, Val's widow, she sought help from Gaiseric the Vandal, leading to the latter's 455 sack of Rome. Many fled, but when the Emperor tried, the palace guard on 31 May killed him, throwing his body into the Tiber. He'd reigned just 70 days. "For the 4th time in less than 50yrs, a barbarian army stood the gates of Rome" (162).
"For 17yrs after the deaths of Aetius and Val III, the W had been dominated by the Suevian Count Ricimer ... yet another kingmaker ... He had brought on to the scene a succession of no less than 5 puppet Emperors. One of these, Avitus, he had forced to abdicate ... and 2, Marjorian and Anthemius, he had had murdered. 2 only had kept their thrones: Libius Severus and Olybrius, the latter having d. of dropsy Oct 472, 2 mos after Ricimer himself. After a 4mo interregnum Ricimer's son ... Gundobad had raised up yet another nonentity, Glycerius; but ... Leo I had ... appointed instead the husband of his wife's niece, one Julius Nepos. Landing in Italy early in 474, Nepos overthrew his rival ... [there was hope that] the age of chaos was over ... but such hopes were all too quickly dashed ... In Aug 475 Orestes, cinc of the army, rose in revolt against [Nepos, who fled and waited, no help from Zeno, since he too was 'under siege'] ... meanwhile ... [Orestes had] on 31 Oct proclaimed as Emperor his son Romulus, nicknamed - though perhaps only later - with the contemptuous diminutive Augustulus [still a child] ... [he held power] for the best part of a year ... but then the army turned against him [led by Odoacer]" (171-2).
55 Avitus 455-6
"For nearly a century now [Romans] had grown used to seeing barbarian generals at the seat of power. There had been Arbogast the Frank, then Stilicho the Vandal, then Aetius - who, though a Roman, was almost certainly of Germanic origin on his father's side - then Ricimer the Suevian. Was the Scyrian Odoacer, they might have asked, so very different from these? ... he was ... [in] refus[ing] to accept a Western Emperor ... [without which] that authority was soon forgotten ... In less than 60 years, Italy would be so far lost as to need a full-scale reconquest by Justinian. It would be [225 yrs] before another Emperor appeared in the West [i.e. Charlemagne] ... Odoacer's decision was to have a 2nd, equally important effect ... a political vacuum ... Instinctively, men looked for another father figure, someone possessed of a degree of prestige and offering a prospect of continuity far beyond the dreams of the most optimistic of barbarian adventurers. And so they raised up the Bishop of Rome, already the Primate of Christendom, investing him w/temporal authority as well as spiritual and surrounding him with much of the pomp and semi-mystical ceremonial formerly reserved for the Emperors. The age of the medieval Papacy had begun" (Byz p173-4).
- Odoacer 476-93, "made no claim to sovereignty ... [only to administer] Italy in the Emperor's [Zeno's] name" (173), killed by Theodoric at a party hosted by latter 15 Mar (perfidy).
"Theodoric the Great, who deposed Odoacer as king of Italy, proved to be an able ruler" (tAR p98)
- Theodoric the Ostrogoth, 493-526, b c454, son/heir of chieftain Theodemir (d471), ruled Italy (33 yrs) as rep. of [Byz] Emperor Zeno per their agreement, executed Boethius 524, d. 30 Aug 526. "b. Pannonia, educated at Constantinople, hostage of Emp. Leo, acq. refinement, culture, educ. of East, k. Odoacer w/his own hand 493, est. himself as ruler of Italy, though a Goth, ruled in Roman way, believed it was possible to reconcile Roman, Germanic interests, ideals, an Arian, but coop. w/others, his reign a time of peace, happiness for Italy, but fame sullied by exec. of Boethius" (WBDC).
So, in summary:
410 Alaric leads Visigoths in 1rst (3-day) sack of Rome
Separate development in Western regions; Britain, Italy, Spain, France, Germany ...
Church of Hagia Sophia (i.e. Holy Wisdom, EMA p78)
Emperors of the East:
After Theodosius, the Eastern Empire, "for various reasons - not least the hopeless mediocrity of its 5C rulers - [slowly evolves] an individual, oriental personality of its own. Latin gives way more and more to Greek, the world of the intellect to that of the spirit [including extreme interest by average citizens in theological questions, like politics today]; yet the classical tradition remains unbroken. The Byzantine Empire is less the inheritor than the continuation of the ancient world" (Byz p119).
RE50 B14 Arcadius 395-408, son of Theodosius I, since Stilicho was mainly supervising Honorius (at Ravenna?), Arcadius at Constantinople fell under the influence of Rufinus; intelligent, unscrupulous, greedy, avaricious, corrupt, wealthy (120). Arcadius was small, dark, swarthy, slow of speech/movement, lazy eyes, 'even stupider than he looked' (121), w/weak character and intellect. Only rival advisor Eutropius kept Rufinus at bay. Meanwhile, the Goths rose in rebellion under Alaric and threatened Constantinople. Strangely, Stilicho several times allowed the Goths to escape destruction at crucial moments (when he had them pinned down). 27 Nov 396 Rufinus k. by Stilicho's soldiers (under Gainas). Eutropius gained influence, but was surrendered 399 to Goths. St. John Chrysostom (lit. 'golden mouth') was forced to shelter him at St. Sophia for awhile, but he was later k. by Goths. Gainas tried to set up a powerbase in Constantinople, but the people prevented it, strong anti-Goth attitude developed, 7K Gothic soldiers k. in streets, Gainas later k. by Huns. Arcadius, "the most feckless [E] Emperor yet ... watched successive strong men meet their violent deaths, while his own vicious and domineering wife insulted and humiliated him in public ... as a fool, incompetent, cuckold" (127). d. May 408, leaving throne to 7yo Theodosius II.
RE51 B15 Theodosius II 408-450, son of Arcadius, 7yo in 408, regent Anthemius [combined ability, high principle, but after 414 eclipsed by Emperor's sis Pulcheria, who for 36 yrs was the real power], "he fortified Constantinople [walls named after him], set up a university there, and revised Roman law in a legal code called the Theodosian Code (promulgated 15 Feb 438, tried to unify Empire, but they just kept diverging culturally, etc.). He made the Eastern Empire a worthy successor of the old Roman Empire" WB). He was k. 28 Jul 450 by a fall from a horse while hunting. Pucheria was strong, determined, power hungry, 'excessively, extravagantly pious' (140). She arranged Theodosius' marriage to Athenais [aka Eudocia, their dau Eudoxia m. 437 Valentinian III, his mother also named Eudoxia], whose Hellenism soon made itself strongly felt in the E Empire e.g. university (Christian counterpart to pagan Athens). Theodosius called for Council of Ephesus which met 22 Jun 431 to condemn Nestorianism (yet again, like Arianism and monophysitism, over relation of Jesus to God, Theodosius and Athenais were Nestorian). Athenais went to Holy Land 438 [111 yrs after Helena's, Hal Lindsey's PWttHL says she built the new East Gate of Jerusalem over the old one, later sealed by Muslims, fulfilling Ez 43:1-9, 44:1-6]. Theodosius/Athenais fell out, he suspected infidelity [w/Paulinus, k. 440], she d460, "sad, lonely, embittered, a pathetic shadow of the brilliant, talented girl who had ... so dazzled [all]" (151). Pulcheria, in order to continue the line, m. Marcian, a Thracian senator and ex-soldier (Byz 155).
RE52 B16 Marcian 450-7 (pic from DOKA, i.e. Colossus at Barletta, ? or Valentinian I, Theodosius I). Unlike Theodosius, he dared to deny Attila his annual tribute (155). Marcian then dealt with "the ever-deepening split in Byzantine society occasioned by the monophysite heresy" (155), summoning the Council of Chalcedon 451 (Byz p327, this was the 4th, after Nicaea 325, Constantinople 381, Ephesus 431 p156). But the heresy wouldn't die. provinces struggling for independence rallied around it, and "from this moment was born the ecclesiastical rivalry between the Old Rome and the New which was to grow increasingly bitter over the centuries until, just 600 yrs later, it was to erupt into schism" (157). d. Jan/Feb 457, Theodosian male line ended. Pulcheria had already died 453. The army picked Aspar, but he was Arian and Alan, neither accepted by most people. So instead of himself becoming Emperor, he, like Arbogast, was content to be a 'kingmaker' and chose one "of his underlings - the steward of his own household, an orthodox Christian from ... Dacia named Leo" (164), crowned 7 Feb 457.
RE53 B17 Leo I 457-74, his coronation at St. Sophia signalled 2 things; the increasing importance of the E Patriarchate and a move away from 'the venerable military traditions on which the Empire had been founded and towards that religious, mystical concept of sovereignty which was to grow ever more insistent as the centuries went by" (164). Leo had little formal education, but plenty of common sense and an independent mind. Aspar couldn't control him as he'd planned. This rivalry was the main theme of Leo's reign and produced 2 factions; on Leo's side was an Isaurian chieftain who m. Leo's dau Ariadne and simplified his name to Zeno. Aspar's faction was led by Basiliscus, bro of Leo's wife Verina. In 468 Leo (finally) launched a campaign to punish Gaiseric in the W, led by Basiliscus. As part of this assault, a general named Heraclius attacked Carthage. But Basiliscus failed miserably and returned in shame. Aspar was k. shortly after by Leo's guards. Leo hardly deserved 'Great' (applied for his religious orthodoxy v. character or brilliance), but was on the whole a just and merciful ruler. d. 3 Feb 474 (168). Leo had nominated Zeno's 7yo son Leo II, but Ariadne had Leo II name his father co-ruler. This was the apparently timeframe of Arthur-Riothamus in Britain (see br-doka).
RE54 B18 Leo II 474, 9 mos after being crowned, young Leo II was dead (168, hmmm).
RE55a B19 Zeno 474-91, ended Vandal war. His chief foes were then the Isaurians, Verina and Basiliscus, assisted by Illus, a powerful Isaurian general who had suddenly and inexplicably turned against the Emperor (169). Nov 475 Zeno fled city. After an uproar, Illus rejoined Zeno, and they returned after a 20mo exile, 479 another revolt by Marcian, gson of imperial namesake, again put down by Illus, these revolts "dangerous and symptomatic of the general disaffection" (175). More serious was another in 483 led by Illus, put down (in 488, Illus killed) only after Zeno allied w/Theodoric the Ostrogoth. Zeno d. 9 Apr 491 'of a fit of epilepsy' (183), but the religious problem was still not resolved (monophysitism still gaining ground). Zeno's son Zeno had d. young, probably of STD, his other son Longinus ('reprobate' 182) was in Zeno's latter failing days in effective control, but Zeno 'became obsessed by the prophecy of a wellknown soothsayer' that his aide Pelagius would succeed him, and had him killed, which outraged the people, since latter was well-liked. The people demanded a Roman [i.e. not Isaurian], orthodox [not heretical, monophysite] Emperor and, owing largely to Ariadne, Flavius Anastasius was chosen (he also fulfilled the prophecy, Ariadne m. him soon after).
RE55b B20 Basiliscus 475-6, revolted, defeated, exiled (d. of cold and hunger, p170).
B21 Anastasius I 491-518, early 60s in 491, one blue eye, one black one, reputation for uprightness and integrity, intelligent, highly cultivated, not cruel or prone to rage, chief defect 'an almost pathological parsimoniousness ... which, combined w/a strong puritanical streak, made Constantinople a dull place to live' (183). He was a tax cutter and enriched the treasury immensely. His chief foes were Longinus and the Isaurians, who fueled rumors of his veiled monophysitism. Longinus was exiled 492, but strife soon escalated into civil war until 496. 2 factions developed from the chariot races, the Blues and the Greens, spilling out into political conflict. Blues generally tended toward landowners, aristocrats and orthodoxy, Greens toward trade, industry, civil service and monophysitism (w/individual exceptions). The Emperor at first tried to be neutral, but eventually openly supported the Greens. Hostility increased steadily, riots of 493, 501, 511 nearly toppled Anastasius, now in his 80s. He even offered to resign. These struggles are hard for 20C to comprehend, "the passionate involvement shown by all classes of society in what appear to most of us today to be impossibly abstruse niceties of theological doctrine" (187). d. 9 Jul 518 age 87. Dave Stotts (on his program "Driving Thru History") said the ancient Greeks were [also] "extremely religious, obsessed w/appeasing their [many] gods [100s], so apparently Greek culture is, in an enduring way, intellectual, cerebral, spiritual v. Roman pragamatism, law, brute force.
B22 Justin I 518-27, c36yo in 518, not of Anastasius' line, uneducated, illiterate, but self-confident, ambitious, revealed to the always superstitious Anastasius via a personal 'sense' (188). Being also chosen by his soldiers and the Senate (as usual taking the path of least resistance), he accepted. Orthodox, openly Blue (see above), but the real power was w/nephew Justinian.
cvr pic of Justinian I
B23 Justinian I 'the Great' 527-65 b482 as 'Petrus Sabbatius', desc of Constantine, "able and determined ruler, and a great military leader ... beginning of the Golden Age of the Byzantine Empire ... last of the Byzantine emperors to speak Latin ... preserved many Roman traditions [but] put the church firmly under the power of the government, where it became little more than a tool ... published the most complete edition of the Roman law ... the Justinian Code [8 Apr 529 Byz p197] ... built the Church of Saint Sophia (Hagia Sophia, Holy Wisdom) in Constantinople ... but the cost of warfare and building ... left his empire bankrupt ... many were angered by the intrigues and power of Justinian's wife, the Empress Theodora [former prostitute!]" (WB). Justinian was behind the most important achievement of his uncle's reign; the Mar 519 healing of the breach w/Rome, begun 484 w/Patriarch Acacius affair (190). He met Theodora 520. Both favored Blues. Sought to bolster Orthodoxy and suppress heresy (against Monophysite resistance, esp. Syria, Egypt) and paganism; closed neo-Platonic Academy at Athens 529; some of those scholars fled to Persia (hmmm, formed Islam in retaliation?). Taxes and corruption led to the Nika riots of 532, put down by generals Belisarius and Mundus, killing 30K. 23 Feb 532, work began on 3rd and final St Sophia (201, 360-404, 415-532, 537-). Justinian's primary objective was to reunify E-W, sent Belisarius/Mundus to reclaim Italy, finally succeeded [May 540], but then Persia attacked [June 540, King Chosroes]! "... p221" (WBDC) p/u here.
B24 Justin II 565-578 (this and later reigns marked by Lombard, Avar, Slav, Bulgar, Persian, then later Moslem, Crusader invasions)
B25 Tiberius II Constantine 578-82
B28 Heraclius 610-41 (finally defeated Persians, "'Autocrat of the Romans' and 28th ruler of Byzantium" 1453, Roger Crowley, Hyperion, 2005, p9)
B29 Constantine III 641
B31 Constans II 'Pogonatus' 641-68
B33 Justinian II 'Rhinotmetus' 685-95
B45 Constantine VI 780-97, "Strange as it may seem to us today, [Charlemagne et. al.] did not think of the Roman Empire as a thing of the past. They viewed the Byzantine Empire ... as [its] continuation ... [standing for] civilization, stability, tradition ... still regarded Constantine VI, the boy emperor, as the RE. Therefore, in 798 the West was shocked by news that the young emp. had been overthrown by his ambitious mother, Irene ... [Charlemagne] undoubtedly perceived Irene's revolt as a sign of weakness in the empire and ... [of] opportunity for himself" (tIoC p97, i.e. set off a sequence of events leading to his crowning as 1rst HRE, seen as a legit. continuation of RE, still disputed how much he himself was involved, key turning point as West ceased to see Byzantines as 'above' them, latter's own fault thru corruption, might've been different).
B46 Empress Irene 797-802 (780-802, 1rst Empress, son blinded and imprisoned 797), 22yr rule, 17 as regent for her minor son [Constantine VI], had a doctrinal dispute w/Charlemagne when she tried to "impose Byzantine image reverence on the West, an idolatrous practice [to] the RCC" (AMF p41, Byz ends w/Irene)
B47 Nicephorus 802-11, Charlemagne's son "King Pepin of Italy placed the indep. cities of Venice and Zara under Frankish protection. The Byzantine Emp. Nicephorus even sent fleets into the Adriatic to threaten the Franks, but Pepin defeated them. In [his] final years ... the power of [Charlemagne's] empire matched that of his 2 great rivals - the Muslims and the Byzantines" (tIoC p105).
B48 Staurakios 811
B70 Alexius I Comnenus 1081-1118, called on western Christians to help fight Turks (1rst Crusade 1096-7), backfired, Crusaders siezed Byzantine lands. After Pope Urban called westerners to action, by 1097 about 50K westerners had gathered in western Turkey [5K knights, 20K soldiers, 25K peasants], but the Greek emperor refused to help or lead them ?! They attacked Jerusalem anyway and in June 1099 conquered the city in a bloodbath, 1rst Crusade.
B71 John II Comnenus 1118-43
B78 Baldwin of Flanders 1204-5, aka Baldwin I 1rst Latin emperor of Byzantium
B79 Henry I 1205-16, 2nd Latin emperor, bro of Baldwin I, ablest of Latin emperors.
Meanwhile, the Greeks (Comneni, Angeli families) sought to reestablish their rule, at first by Theophilus? seizing control of ? (called dictator? of ?) in 1206?, then gradually expanding their territory. AEWH Chart #25 shows a separate Lascarid dynasty from 1206-61. In 1261, Michael VIII reconquered Constantinople and began rule of reunited Byzantine Empire by the Paleologi family (see below).
B84 Marie? 1236-71
B85 Michael VIII (Paleologus) 1259-82, began Lascarid Dynasty 1261-73, 1285-1301, starting with Michael Palaeologus 1261-, a general of the Greek ruler at Nicaea and ablest of the Paleologi, founded last line of Byzantine rulers in 1261, overthrew Latins and captured Constantinople, but Ottomans (from East) and Serbs (from West) attacked, reducing Byzantium to just Constantinople, which fell in 1453 to Turks. WB)
B86 Andronicus II 1282-1328, son of Michael VIII, learned, pious, but weak (AEWH)
B87 Andronicus III 1328-41, gson of II (son had died), frivolous, irresponsible (AEWH)
B88 John V 1341-76 and 1379-91, son of Andronicus III
- John VI Cantacuzene 1347-54
B89 Andronicus IV 1376-9, son of John V
B91 Manuel II [Palaeologus] 1391-1425, able ruler in a hopeless position, Turks approaching, In Sep 2006 Pope Benedict XVI got into trouble by quoting his remark to a Persian scholar during a debate: "Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached" (USNWR 25 Sep 06 p21, Benedict's larger point was "that Europe is a fundamentally Christian civilization that must reaffirm its religious roots if it is to remain strong").
B92 John VIII 1425-48, son of Manuel II, desperate from the start
Note: Under the Paleologi, the empire declined territorially and politically, but interestingly also underwent a cultural revival on a part w/the Renaissance, creating many notable artists and writers, etc. (AEWH).
Hmmm, Byz p99 states there were only 88 Byzantine emperors, w/Heraclius #28 (1453 p9).
Here's a summary outline of Byzantium: The Early Centuries (John Julius Norwich, Knopf, 1989, 408pp), from which much above information was compiled:
- Maps (Constantinople, The Mediterranean World, Italy, Asia Minor and the Middle East, The Balkan Peninsula)
- Family Trees (Diocletian, Constantine, Valentinian, Theodosius; Leo I; Leo III; Justinian and Theodoric; Heraclius)
- 1: Constantine the Great (to 323, Division of Empire, C Proclaimed, Maxentius, Milvian Bridge, C's Vision, C's Christianity, Serene Fields, Rivalry w/Licinius, L's Defeat/Death)
- 2: The Adoption of the Faith (323-6, The Arian Heresy, The Council of Nicaea, A Family Divided, [pagan] Roman Resentment, C Leaves Rome)
- 3: Constantinople (326-37, Xfr of Capital, Constantinople - The Plan, Dedication of City, Benefactions in Palestine, Arius and Athanasius, d. of Arius, C's illness, d. of C, 'Equal of the Apostles')
- 4: Julian the Apostate (337-63, C's sons, Julian's childhood, J acclaimed Caesar, Mutiny in Paris, J heads East, J's Reforms, J's religious views, Anti-Christian legislation, Battle of Ctesiphon, Tragedy of J)
- 5: The Empire at Bay (363-95, d. of Jovian, Valentinian and Valens, Barbarian attack, Revolt against Gratian, Defeat of Maximus, Theodosius does Penance, Battle of Frigidus, Greatness of Theodosius)
- 6: The Fall of Rome (395-410, Arcadius takes of wife, Alaric in Greece, Eutropius' flight, Alaric invades Italy, St John Chrysostom, d. of Arcadius, Alaric before Rome, Honorius refuses terms, Goths sack Rome)
- 7: Of Heresies and Huns (410-53, Theodosius seeks a wife, Galla Placidia, Univ. of Constantinople, Nestorius, Apple of Discord, Princess Honoria, Attila the Hun, Marcian and the Monophysites, Attila crosses Rhine, Attila's burial)
- 8: The Fall of the West (455-93, Vandals, V sack Rome, Expedition against V, Aspar assassinated, Zeno takes flight, Julius Nepos, Abdication of Romulus Augustulus, Insurrections against Zeno, Theodoric the Ostrogoth, Th rules in Italy)
- 9: The Rise of Justinian (493-532, Anastasius Enthroned, Blues v. Greens, Religious Riots, Justin, The Church Reunited, Theodora, John of Cappadocia, The Work of Tribonian, The Nika Riots, Rebuilding of St Sophia, St Sophia)
- 10: Belisarius (532-40, African Expedition, Capture of Carthage, B's triumph, Amalasuntha, B invades Italy, B enters Rome, Milvian Bridge again, Rimini relieved, Fall of Milan, B at Ravenna, Fall of Ravenna)
- 11: Totila the Goth (540-49, Sack of Antioch, Antonina's Infidelity, Plague, B returns to Italy, T's appeal, T marches on Rome, T's siege of Rome, T offers peace)
- 12: The Last Years of Justinian (549-65, 3 chapters, Pope reviled, Narses invades Italy, Spanish Expedition, Pope seeks asylum, 5th ecumenical Council, Justinian's decline, d. of B, last Roman Emperor, Justinian - summing up)
- 13: The Downward Drift (565-610, Armenia in revolt, Tiberius Constantine, Peace w/Persia, Imperial parsimony, Phocas seizes power, reign of terror, decline into anarchy, Heraclius m. and crowned)
- 14: The First Crusader (610-41, destruction of Jerusalem, Reorg of Asia Minor, H sails to war, Jerusalem avenged, Emperor's dilemma, Constantinople under siege, Battle of Nineveh, fate of Chosroes, triumph of H, Islam, the single energy, Omar enters Jerusalem, Monothelitism, last indignity)
- 15: The Heraclian Line (641-85, suspicious d. of Constantine, fate of the Colossus, typos of Constantine, martyrs to the single will, Constans in Italy, Muslims besiege Constantinople, Bulgar invasion, 6th Council)
- 16: The Emperor Who Lost His Nose (685-711, repopulation of Anatolia, the quinisextum, insurrection of Leontius, the khazar marriage, Justinian's return, Byzantine losses, Emperor greets Pope, Philippicus Bardanes Acclaimed, Justinian's record)
- 17: The First Iconoclasts (711-75, Anastasius and Theodosius, Leo marches on Constantinople, Leo saves the Empire, Iconoclasm, Leo issues his edict, Constantine Copronymus, persecution of monasteries, Bulgar campaigns, Papal states)
- 18: Irene (775-802, I assumes power, 7th Council, 'falsehood and folly', 2nd marriage, Emperor blinded, Charlemagne, Donation of Constantine, Empress overthrown)
From Baldwin.html file:
- Legends 753-509 BC
- Early Republic 509-264 BC
- Overseas Expansion 264-133 BC
- A Century of Revolution 133-27 BC
- The Pax Romana (i.e. Early Empire) 27 BC - AD 180
- Military Crisis 180-285
- Government Reform 284-337
- Decline and Fall 337-476
1 Charlemagne 800-14
2 Louis I the Pious 814-40
3 Lothair I 840-55
4 Louis II 855-75
5 Charles II the Bald 875-7
- vacant 877-81
6 Charles III the Fat 881-7
Charles was the last ruler of both France and the HRE, after which latter was led by Germans, and French and German political history parted, having shared common roots in Merovingians and Carolingians.
- vacant 887-91
7 Guido de Spoleto 891-4
8 Lambert (co w/Guido) 892-8
9 Arnulf 896-9
- vacant 899-901?
10 Louis III (of Provence) 901-5
- vacant 905-911?
House of Franconia:
11 Conrad I* 911-8
House of Saxony:
12 Henry I 'the Fowler' 919-36
13 Otto I 'the Great' 936-73 (crowned 962)
14 Otto II 973-83
15 Otto III 983-1002
16 St. Henry II 1002-24 (crowned 1014)
17 Conrad II 1024-39
18 Henry III 1039-56
19 Henry IV 1056-1105 [Rudolph of Swabia 1077-80, Herman of Salm 1081-8, Conrad 1087-98]
20 Henry V 1105-25
House of Supplinburg:
21 Lothair II of Saxony 1125-37
House of Hohenstaufen:
22 Conrad III 1138-52 (Henry 'the Lion?' 1147-50)
23 Frederick I 'Barbarossa' (red beard) 1152-90
24 Henry VI 1190-7
25 Philip of Swabia 1198-1208
House of Welf:
26 Otto IV of Brunswick 1198-1218
House of Hohenstaufen:
27 Frederick II 1212-50 (Henry 1220-35, Henry Raspe of Thuringia 1246-7)
28 Conrad IV 1250-4
29 William of Holland 1247-56
30 Richard of Cornwall 1257-72
House of Hapsburg:
31 Rudolf I 1273-91 (first of many Hapsburgs)
House of Nassau:
32 Adolf 1292-8
House of Hapsburg:
33 Albert I of Austria 1298-1308
House of Luxemburg:
34 Henry VII 1308-13
House of Wittelsbach:
35 Louis IV of Bavaria 1314-47 (Frederick of Austria 1314-30)
House of Luxemburg:
36 Charles IV 1346-78 (Guenther of Schwarzburg 1349)
37 Wenceslas 1378-1400
House of Wittelsbach:
38 Rupert of the Palatinate 1400-10
House of Luxenburg:
39 Sigismund 1410-37 (Jobst of Moravia 1410-1)
House of Hapsburg:
40 Albert II of Austria 1438-9
41 Frederick III 1440-93
42 Maximilian I 1493-1519
43 Charles V 1519-58
44 Ferdinand I 1558-64
45 Maximilian II 1564-76
46 Rudolf II 1576-1612
47 Matthias 1612-9
48 Ferdinand II 1619-37
49 Ferdinand III 1637-57
50 Leopold I 1658-1705
51 Joseph I 1705-11
52 Charles VI 1711-40 (interregnum 1740-2)
House of Wittelsbach:
53 Charles VII of Bavaria 1742-5
House of Hapsburg-Lorraine:
54 Francis I of Lorraine m. Maria Theresa 1745-65
55 Joseph II 1765-90
56 Leopold II 1790-2
57 Francis II* 1792-1806 (ended by Napoleon)
A member of the (royal Irish) O'Donel line "became Finance Minister to the Austrian Government, steering Austria to economic recovery after Napoleon's victory changed the Holy Roman Empire into the Austrian Empire" (Erin's Blood Royal p275).
* = not crowned at Rome, thus strictly only kings of Germany (AEWH)
"In the Persian and Byzantine Empires, the warriors of Islam found the same hollowness they had encountered in Visigoth Spain ... but the stout defense of Emperor Leo III halted Islam at the Bosphorus and saved Constantinople for Christianity. The soldiers of Islam retired over the Taurus Mountains and, for 300 yrs, Asia Minor remained a Byzantine province and the Balkans remained Christian" (WtRWW p65, later HRE or same as Pope Leo III?).
And since the United Nations is a modern hope based on the Roman idea of worldwide government, here are the 7 UN Secretaries-General so far (UN founded after WWII):
1. (brit) Gladwyn Jebb (looks British/American)
2. Alger Hiss
3. Dag Hammarskjold? 1950s (looks European)
4. ? (looks Asian)
5. ? (looks European, Kurt Waldheim of Austria?)
6. Javier Perez de Cuellar (during Carter's presidency 1976-80)
7. ? Boutros Boutros-Ghali 1???-1997
8. Kofi Annan 1997-2006
9. Ban Ki-moon 2006- (longtime foreign minister of S Korea, likely next SG, Economist: efficient bureaucrat but w/o charisma, which maybe OK)
The 1rst (acting) UN Sec. Gen. Gladwyn Jebb said the UN's founding fathers aimed too high for "this wicked world" ... "Almost since its inception, the UN has been charged with failing to live up to its original high ideals" ... 3rd UN SG Dag Hammerskjold wisely noted that "the UN was not created to take humanity to heaven, but to save it from hell" (Economist 6 Jan 07).
Hmmm, the first actual UN Secy was Alger Hiss (?! communist spy who along w/cronies set up UN).
I?? Benito Mussolini (WWII fascist ldr)
...(many changes, notoriously turbulent and unstable govt)
I?? 2001-2006 (Apr) Silvio Berlusconi (center-right)
I?? 2006-2xxx Romano Prodi (left-center)
Germans consider a founder was Arminius, [leader of the Cherusci tribe and] a military chieftain "who in his mid-20s commanded the Germanic contingent of the imperial Roman army from AD 4-6, for which service he won laurels and Roman citizenship. In AD 9, Arminius led his warriors against 3 Roman legions then roaming the province of Germania under the command of provincial governor Publius Quinctilius Varus ... [winning] a never-forgotten victory in Teutoberg Forest [Varus fell on his own sword when he saw he was defeated], which ended Roman plans for further expansion of their empire east of the Rhine ... 15 centuries later ... German humanists and national[ists] discovered and published Tacitus's History of Germany and proclaimed Arminius Germany's 'liberator' and his victories the birth of German history" (AMF p20-1). Tacitus criticized the Germans' lust for war (rather fight than work) but praised their lack of guile, "lacking in cunning and sophistication ... blurt[ing] out their inmost thoughts ... every soul [laying itself] bare" (AMF p22). "Between the rule of the Merovingian Frank Clovis in the late 5C ... and that of the Saxon Conrad in the early 10C, Germanic cultures melded w/Greco-Roman, Roman Christian, and Byzantine to create the Western Europe we know today" (AMF p18). Tacitus "described the Batavi, a compliant people settled w/in the empire whom he thought to be the bravest of them all, as 'weapons and armor to be used only in war' (AMF p22, i.e. as 'grunts').
Prussians in late 1800s (united Germany, "blood and iron", initiated German General Staff, 1rst welfare state under Otto von Bismarck)
WWI leadership (Kaiser Wilhelm, Hindenberg?)
Weimar Republic between WWI and WWII
G?? ? Hindenburg? (just before WWII)
G?? Adolph Hitler (during WWII)
G?? Konrad Adenaur (just after WWII)
G?? Willy Brandt?
G?? Helmut Kohl (1990s)
G?? Gerhart Schroeder (-2005)
G?? Angela Merkel (2005-)
Tsar Nicholas (to 1917, murdered w/family, wife Alexandra)
Vladimir Lenin (1917-52?)
Josef Stalin (to 1952?)
Nikita Kruschev? (pounds shoe on desk in protest)
Leonid Brezhnev ?-1982
Yuri Andropov (frmr KGB enforcer, 15mo rule, died early) 1982-3
Constantin Chernenko 1983-?
Mikhail Gorbachev (1980s, wife Raisa, glasnost, perestroika meaning ? openness)
1989: velvet revolution, Berlin wall falls
Boris Yeltsin (1990s reformer, heavy drinker, stood up to coup attempt, Russia's 1rst popularly elected leader, 19xx-2000)
Vladimir V. Putin (2000-current)