1. What is corporate communication? Total of corporate efforts to communicate effectively and profitable. Who does it? Any corporate take to achieve that goal depends on the character of the organization and its relationship with its supplier, customers, and employee. In planning - strategic tool for competitors, managers use it to lead, motivate, persuade and inform employees and public.
2. Interdisciplinary field draw from: begin with the Greek and Roman rhetoric, using the finding and methods of: anthropology, communications, language and linguistics, sociology, psychology, management and marketing.
3. CC can describe a wide variety of management functions. Internal and external Traditional discipline? Public relations, investors relations, employee relations, government relations, technical communications, marketing communication, and management communication, training and employee development. Philanthropic activity, crisis and emergency communications, and advertising.
4. Written and process communication tools: press release, videotaped instruction, speech at a professional conference to a local PTA meeting, letter to consumer and key journal editors, those activities are intend to achieve the corporate objective and goal.
5. Five of the tools to communicate within the corporation itself. Computer networks, Local Area Networks (LAN), interactive video on computers, corporate TV, FAX, E-mail.
6. How can a strong corporate image and culture be communicated? A central group., operate globally, as well as local and regional ones. The value of a central management structure for communication makes sense. Deliver one clear voice,
7. Clear understanding and articulation of the company mission is the cornerstone for building an image in the mind of employees as the general publics. The clear statement of co. mission builds the organizational culture into employee. Share value and belief reveal corporate culture .create a recognizable and positive perception of the company among its suppliers, vendors and customers,
8. 7 Elements of corporate communications: guide the development of a strong corporate identity: a reasonable corporate philosophy, a genuine sense of corporate citizenship, a strong relationship with the media, an appropriate and professional way of dealing with the press, a quick and responsible way of communicating in a crisis or emergency situation and a sophisticated approach to global communication.
1. Stakeholder and stockholder? Stakeholder is any who has a stake in the organization’s success - vendors, customers, employees, executives, the local barber, police and the kid of the paper route.
2. Skill a corporate communicator should have? Written and verbal skills, face to face and telephone interpersonal skills, media savvy, curiosity, activity listening skills, and an understanding of advocacy communications, the ability of solve problem in group, to understand media and communication technology, to work ethically and to feel comfortable in an international, transitional, or global business environment.
3. Central talent for a corporate communicator: writing
4. Three main areas of analysis in writing process: audience, environment or context, and message. Meeting audience needs while achieving the company goals. Put human interaction at communication, an enviroment seeks to win both for the organization and it customers. The message is based on the analysis rather than on a personal bias, from several perspective.
5. Corporate communicators assist in the process of making presentations: face to face meeting, write the speeches for the corporate executives, select the right media and material for presentation: different industries use different way. Engineering or high tech firms straight forward, factual, overhead projections, or slides. Management tend to be brief and direct can use video. Media: interactive video networks, computer networks, electronic mail.
6. Media with application:
Video: annual meetings, motivational messages, news conferences, announcements, training.
Radio: annual meetings, motivational messages, announcements, training.
Film: annual meeting, motivational message, company history, training.
Print: annual meeting, newsletter, magazines, announcements, policies, reference documents.
Computer Net-work: Time-critical message, proprietary technical information, routine memos and action items, reference material, policies.
Posters: Motivational messages, seasonal announcements, safety and quality messages.
1. The definition of corporate citizenship: Corporate citizenship is the acceptance of the corporation’s role as a responsible and significant member of the community in which it is located. The community can be the local towns in which the corporation has its plants and offices, or the nations in which it does business or international communities.
2. The public with which corporations have traditionally held relationship: local, state, national, or international communities. Customers, venders, suppliers, government, investors, community neighbors, banks, international community, competitors, press, employee and managers, union, board, academic community, legislator.
3. The evolution of corporation as a corporate citizen: changing life from rural to urban during and after the industrial revolution, corporate can no longer just pay tax to stay out of the affairs of the community. By the beginning of the 20th century, the company was an integral part of the community. And its presence has a strong impact on the lives of the people, whether or not they took home a company paycheck
4. The history of public relations function: Beginning of the century, after the industrial revolution, consults find to cultivate the favor of the general public as a positive way of counteracting the ill between owners and their workers and by extension the community in which the workers lived.
5. The way a company may involve itself in philanthropy: company’s matching gift program -education, foundation or trust to distribute its contribution and donations, (no individual, ally with its business, Granting funds for scientific research or providing operating and supporting grants to art museums or performances of plays.
6. Outreach program: Educational programs, Seminars or courses related to business, donate their product or provide free service for fund raising. Little or no fanfare.
7. Government relations: Meeting with local, state, federal, or international agencies to advocates for the corporation on matters in its interests. Provide position papaers, and information to inform and persuade the agency, not by industry, ethical. Exp: NAFTA vs. AFL-CIO.
8. Customer relations: how to treat customers and venders, how to handel an angry customer’s telephone build the corporate image in the minds of individuals.
9. Four areas of liability presented? Investment information, goods and services marketing, safety information, employee handbook.
10. Steps of NIMBY to satisfy both the community and the company: Any institution that wishes to expend, change, or construct will encounter the Not-In-My-Back-Yard syndrome. 1. Familiarize the community needs and concerns, listening to suggestions, 2. Present the company and project. 3. Address public concerns - regarding all the problem 4. Create strategies and involving the public in the development of the project, and result in successful community acceptance programs. Get government’s permits.
1. Corporate Identity: mission statements, corporate philosophies, names, logos, jingle, team music, building, uniform, letterhead,, annual reports, advertising, internal program, external communication, public perception of company image the company does, products and services, and employees.
2. Corporate identity different from corporate image: image is the perception of the company in the minds of various public through the corporate identify.
3. The mission statement defines the corporation its goals and operating principles, value, beliefs. Reader to assess how the business operates within its environment. Call for each company or organization’s discussion will vary according to the product and services it creates and the communities and customer it serves. The co. philosophy is aligned with the mission statement.
4. Six of the statement included in a corp’s philosophy statement: quality and excellence; customer satisfaction; stockholder return on investment; profits and growth; employee relations; ethical behavior; preservation of the environment and resources
5. Six statement of code of conduct: business ethics, compliance with law, conflict of interest, equal opportunities, working conditions, the environment.
6. Features of logos, letterheads, and annual reports build and maintain corp identity: the art work that you recognize and to reinforce your reaction to the visual stimulus. Building corporate image by giving an non-verbal message that reinforces the company image in the mind of the viewer.
7. Corporate ads and product ads: design to create a positive image of the corp to public. Presents a general image of the company or an issue with which co. wants to associated.
8. Internal perception programs: often motivational and developmental, is the creation and definition of the co. values and beliefs for the employees. Begin with the orientation of co’s itself, history, policies and procedures, mission and philosophies.
9. Four trends to emergence of high-speed management: 1st information and communication technologies change the organization, manuf, marketg, mangment, 2. Dramatic increase in the world trade, the emergence of a global ecomy, and the development of three large core markets. 3. Rapidly changing technology, quick market saturation, unexpected competition, making succeeding business difficult, 4. Management emphasize on innovation, adaptation, flexibility, efficiency, and rapid response.
10. Seven features of the new corporate perspective for coping with a volatile business climate: 1. Stay close to customers and their competitors. Needs, 2. Think about new products and investment. 3. Rapid and effective delivery requires close coordination between design manufacturing, testing, marketing, delivery, and servicing system. 4. Product quality, user friendliness, ease of service, and competitive pricing for market penetration. 5. Be prepare to change and withdraw product. 6. Corporate vision must emphasize on change, assimilation of new units with alternative values, encourage learn mistake without reprisal. 7. Develop global strategies for joint venture, value added partnership.
11. Internal communication: face-to-face and one-on-one: 1. trained spokesperson from union and management: well versed on issue, communicate properly, was informed and up-to date. 2. In-plant meeting, opening presentation, q and a session, telephone for unanswered questions. 3. One-on-one communication. 4. Communication S.W.A.T. teams visit plant and office area for rumors removing. Print communications: 1. Newspaper: general announcement information, thoughts, comments. 2. More in-depth weekly publication: produced in-house, event information, dealt with q and a, update the mechanic of the voting process. 3. Bulletin board. 4. Posters. 5. Billboards “We Can Do It Better!” 6. Primer of cash flow. Video communications: 1. the video distribution system in plant. 2. Weekly newscast relating to the co. and industry.
12. External communication retirees, spouses, and business and communities: informational meetings outline financial plan and questions, representative from management, union tailored presentn to the specific group. Media and advertising: for reach employee and area communities in large number: call-in talk shows, round table discussion, press conference.
1. Culture was defined by anthropologists as: the system of values and beliefs shaped by the experiences of life, historical tradition, social or class position, political events, ethnicity, and religious forces.
2. Corporation’s culture: the culture that exists in an organization and consists of shared value, beliefs, assumptions, perceptions, norms, artifacts, and patterns of behaviors. The Otts list 3 levels: 1) artifacts and patterns of behavior: can be observed, logos, annual reports, heroes, stores, legends, myths, business attire, company awards dinner 2) Value and belief: slogan or an ad complex and difficult to articulate simply. 3) Basic Assumptions: observation of what it does and what it says.
3. Quality program and corporate culture quality programs have an impact on the corporate culture change: emphasizes to a consensus approach to management which is focused on quality action teams empowered to identify and solve problems.
4. Culture perpetuate through training program: Through presentation and hiring of new employees, socialization of members-formal program, removal of behavior who do not fit-probation, presentation of behavior appropriate to the culture-employee handbook, justification of behavior that is beyond the norm-saying, communication of cultural values and beliefs-awards at ceremony and publication..
order the 8 steps in developing a media strategy?
(1) Define the problem
(2) Research the problem: focus group, survey interview
(3) Analyze the problem in view of your research
(4) Develop goals and objectives
(5) Define public to be reached
(6) Plan program of actions and activities reach the goal and objectives - according goal and target public
(7) Implement your program
(8) Evaluate the effectiveness of your program
4 tasks to prepare company execs for media interviews?
(1) Write anticipated questions for the interviewee
(2) Assist in developing their responses
(3) Rehearse in practice sessions
(4) Alert executives to possible pitfall.
the 5 stops in the Behavior Change Model?
(2) Interest/seek knowledge about products: depends on purchasing stage
(3) Decision to try: want to have some action
(4) Trial: make people to try or adopt it.
(5) Adoption or rejection of new thinking or behavior: “word-of-mouth”
List the 10 responsibility of Media Relations People
a. Become first-line contact with media
b. Serve as spokesperson for company
c. Develop communication strategies
d. Assist executives in preparing for interviews
e. Ensure company is represented accurately and positively
f. Lead reporters to best sources of information
g. Provide accurate and germane facts
h. Gather pertinent information
i. Anticipate questions and decide how to best answer them
j. Help to develop the key points a company wants to convey
List the 12 reason media will call you for comments
a. Good news
b. Bad news
e. Famous or infamous people associated with the company. (criminal activity)
h. Disasters or emergencies
i. Product introductions
j. Product recalls
k. Industry trends
l. Comment on a current event
What are three common pitfalls that execs may fall into during a media
(1) Falls questions: questions may have incorrect information - always correct and paraphrases question in the reply.
(2) What-if questions: do not response to speculation or hypothetical questions. Say “We can’t speculate on the action.”
(3) Pauses: the nervous interviewee must not feel they are obligate to fill with any voice with more response.
What are 6 tasks for the Media Relations Person to do to prepare for a
(1) Prepare in advance
(2) Anticipate question
(3) Gather information and facts before the interview
(4) Determine and assess the audience
(5) Rehearse main point to emphasize during the interview
(6) Train executives to use linguistic links and transitions, like:
A. The main things to the public to remember
B. Let’s look at the large issue
Let me explain our procedure
the Triage Model of a Crisis as borrowed from medicine?
a. Not seriously wounded- can be treated with little effort.
b. Near Death: No amount of effort can help to recover.
c. Recovery Possible if something is done immediately.
What are the four stages of the disease development model that Goodman
borrowed from medicine and an organization passes through when going through a
a. Pre-crisis- Crisis build-up - Prodromal Period: symptoms appear
b. Clear-signs of a crisis - Crisis breakout - acute crisis: triggering event -> damaging relaity
c. Persistent reemergence of the crisis - Chronic crisis - Abatement: charges, legal action, demonstrations, coverage by news
d. Resolution of crisis- termination of crisis
4. 9 types of crisis an organization may go through:
1. Public perception. 2. Sudden market shift, 3. Product failure, 4. Top management succession, 5. Cash flow problems, 6. Industrial relations, 7. Hostile takeover, 8. Adverse international events, 9. Regulation and deregulation.
advice is given Goodman and Sturges on crisis preparedness?
1. Planning for a crisis is the first step. 2. No one can predict when the crisis will occur, only that one or more crisis will happen at some point. 3. Therefore company must plan to deal with emergencies and their consequences. 4. Weakness come from not being prepared. 5. Planning for an inevitable can be good business.
organization is faced with a crisis what is the 3 types of behavior it is
1. It’s own behavior as an organization. 2. The behavior of its members. 3. The behaviors of all its publics. Crisis message may also reach many unintended audience.
7. What is the objective of Crisis Management?
To influence public opinion development to the point that opinions held in the post-crisis environment are at the same level or greater in positive opinion, and at the same level or less in negative opinions among members in any constituent audience.
Explain and describe the purpose of The Public Opinion Mode in
relationship to a company’s crisis?
Isolated event Continuing relationship Crisis management’s objective
the 8 stages in the development of Group Public Opinion ?
What does information have the greatest and least influence on opinion.
In what stages are opinions the most malleable and difficult to alter?
1. Latent issue, 2. Event occur, 3. Groups form, 4. Debate Occurs, 5. Time lapses, 6. Public opinion forms, 7. Social action occur, 8. Group norm established.
Greatest Influence: step 1 opinions are unstructured, and step 5 time allows allow information to form the opinion,
Least influence: Step 2: immediately following the event, step 4 while debate occure.
Mallable: at the formation stage, issue involved is salient to the individual but opinions are slightly or unstructured.
Difficult to alter: involve self interests, immediate following the event.
10. List and describe 6 of Cantril’s 15 Laws of Public Opinion
1. Opinion is highly sensitive to important events. 2. Opinion is generally determined more by events than by words - unless the words themselves are events 3. Public opinion does not anticipate emergencies - it only reacts to them. 4. Once self-interest is involved, opinion is not easily changed. 5. When self-interest is involved, public opinion in a democracy is likely to be ahead of official policy. 6. People have more opinions and are able to form opinions more easily about goals than the methods to reach goals.
does Goodman recommend as the correct way to approach doing business globally?
“Act local, think global” not just do’s and don’ts- F,
(1) Attention to cultural, social, political, and religious practices, in addition to technical, business, legal, and financial practice.
(2) Look at Communications: language, technology and the environment, social organization, context and face saving, concepts of authority, non-verbal communication, concepts of times.
The way people view (technology/) social organization impact business
Social structure influence people’s social values. Consider following: kinship and family relationship, educational systems and ties to business, class and economic distinctions, religion, political and legal system professional organization and union, gender stereotypes and roles, emphasize on group or individual, attachment to the land,. Know background, through major works of art and literature, before go overseas.
How a nation’s view of (context and face-saving / )authority and power
impact business communication?
Understanding the concept of power help to shape business communication strategy. How power is excuse different from culture to culture. Direct approach to communication in the U.S. may offensive in France or Japan. Western cultures see power as the ability to make an act on decision. Decision is making the method of debate and discussion. In Asian cultures, power and authority are from by social order. Asian accepts decision by group, and like to be part of the group rather than leader.
How can a nation’s view of (body language and non-verbal)/time impact
communication impact business communication?
Concepts of time different from culture to culture. Time is a social variable. In the Caribbean country, their pace is slower than the U.S.. do business, Mexico - on time.
What does Goodman say the European business professionals share in
share a culture and belief system in common with America or Asia, share with one another more than with their won, include: taste in art, literature, music recreational activities, cars, homes, attitudes toward work and money. “global professional” emerged.
Describe what Goodman says are the challenges of Americans doing business with
the Pacific Rim nations and what is meant by a high contest culture and low
Difficulties in language, culture, differences in contest and face-saving. Communication may confronted with controlled use of silence, or communication through intuition.
Low context cultures: North America, German emphasis on clearly communication, the low, and contracts. Rely on verbal communication.
High-context cultures as Japanese and Latin American emphasis on personal relationship, present information indirectly and often ambiguously, act at all times to preserve one’s outward dignity, to save face. (example: Korean’s kibun; Maintain their own harmony and everyone else.- unwillingness to say no directly as a way to safe face.)
14. From the Baldwin essay, list and describe the 10 differences
between U.K. and U.S.?
1st. US owes its origin from revolution; Great Britain history was shaped by evolution over a thousand years. Unwilling to change.
2nd. US has a formal written codified Constitution. The British constitution is a mixture of inter-related characteristics, vague and weaving.
3rd. US has a Bill of Rights. In Britain Parliament is supreme. Unlike US, the courts can’t decide an act unconstitutional.
4th US is a federal states with a formal separate power between : executive, legislative and judicial, and between federal and states. Britain is a unitary states.
5th US elects its President; Great Britain have a hereditary monarchy. Prime Minister is the leader of the majority political party in the House of Commons.
6th. The police in US are always armed. 10% police in Britain are trained in the use of arm.
7th.No national health service in the US. In Britain socialized medicine available.
8th U.S. education is higher. In US. 60% college,. In Britain 16% in college.
9th US people play incomprehensible games such as baseball. The British play eminently sensible game such as cricket.
10th US have far more TV channel than the British, which only has 4 channel.
How would you put together a brochure for consumers and a corporate
newsletter for employees?
1. Know the intended audience: specialized or general, persuading or informing, How will brochure be used? 2. Determine the format: Fitting your format to the writing, Or fitting the writing to predetermined format. 3. Position of this brochure: Part of larger communication package: the information must be keyed to the information in the rest of the package. A stand-alone pieces-it need to be complete and consistent in its message. The message must fit within the number of page folds. 4. Order the panel: Front Panel: eye catcher. Headline, illustration, and some body copy. Second Panel to build interest. It’s the first panel of inside spread. Reminder of inside panel: carry the main load of information. Final Panel: address information for mailing purpose.
(If you were a corporate CEO, how would you prepare yourself to write and
deliver a speech based on communicating your company’s mission? ) How would
you plan to maximize trade show exposure for your company?
(1) Establish pre-show interest: a. serious direct mail announce the offering of at-booth giveaways, product demonstration, celebrity appearance. b. Familiarize myself with key industry trade media and develop variety of angles, discuss their needs and search for a fit. c. offer “exclusive” timely information, discuss current hot issues in industry, and how our firm will address, d. pre-show promotion
(2) On-site: a. Theme must be unique and news worthy. b. bring large supply of press kits for press room, c. stop by the press room periodically, and introduce yourself and the kit, d. Outstanding product demonstration at my booth, e. press conference for high interests news, f. employee’s paper, schedule interview with co’s personnel, editorial round table, paid keynote speakers, sponsored informal gathering, contact media in the host city and surrounding region.
(3) Post Show: a. submitting to media: photo of exhibition and display, rewrite or transcripts co’s speech, copy of press kits, b. thanks you notes, c. long-term public relations.
List 10 pieces you would likely find in a press/news/media kit?
Cover letter, table of contents, press release, backgrounder, reproduced clippings, fact sheets, brochures, company magazines/newsletter/ most recent annual report/ features story/sidebar/biography and photos of any important individuals.
11/12. Describe how to create a (backgrounder/) biography?
The leader who are important to the announcement or the event. Brief and should give only pertinent information. Kits should include bios of each persons and its speech. a 5 X 7 inch head-and shoulders photo with identifying caption. Event photos separate from the bio.
Describe the function of and how to create a fact sheet:
A fact sheet summaries the basic facts about an event, an organization, a product or a service. Resource documents to help reports check basic facts and convey accurate information.
How: 1. Must have: Organizations full address, “Fact Sheet”, contacts, date. Body: If instead of news release: “who, what, when, where why and how” information. Position: If accompany a news release, provide information about organizations, product, services, industry.
14. What is placement strategy?
(1) Localize a press release if a number of them are being sent to different area. Find right local angle.
(2) If send nationally as well as locally, spread national interest throughout.
(3) Avoid commercial plugs.
(4) If sending local media only, omit name of state.
(5) Don’t strain to find a local angle where one does not exist.
(6) Use name of local people
(7) Use information that is local significant.
(8) Multiplying: writing the release to fit the medium.
Plan, Strategy and Objective Lecture Handouts
What are the three types of objectives the Corporate Communicator may be
How are Business and Marketing Objective measured?
a. Business and Marketing Objective- 1. Sales- units sold. 2. Dollars - profit/Gross, 3 Share of market
b. Communication Objectives- awareness, interest, knowledge/understand, preference, conviction
c. Behavioral Effects: action, trial, repurchase
Describe what is strategy?
Strategy is an idea, a concept, a plan about how to use the resources at hand in the contest of a specific situation. Derived from the history of competition and warfare. Sun Pin, three run game, Hannibal uphill 2000 win 7000
describe the 5 stages in the Gruning & Hunt Public Relations Model:
Bottom to up: Potential Purchasers à Those merely aware à Prospects who know what product offersà those with favorable attitudes à Point of preference over all possibilities à Desire to buy and the Conviction à Actual purchase.
the pattern of format used for writing an Objective?
What should include: unit measure of change, specific targeted group, a time frame,
Increase (what: 3 types of objectives) of (product name) in (targeted group) over the next (time period) by (measurable goal, like %) of change. Example: To increase the purchase of Diamond Pendent among 10% of our target market (woman, above 20, having annual incomes of approximately $20,000) by the end of the 1998, the 2nd introductory year of our national campaign.
and briefly describe the six ways research can be used as a tool in a
(1) To formulate strategy: using research result to form the strategy according to public according to public preference
(2) To gauge success: to know the achievement of a new campaign
(3) To test message: to know the public opinion about an issue or problem
(4) To size up competition: to know the weakness and strength and create new programs to overcome the weakness.
(5) To get publicity: the research result can get media and public attention about the co, and raise co’s image.
(6) To sway opinion: Report the research result about a certain issue can clarify the problem and influence the opinion
List opportunities or tools that can be used by the corporate communicators
(1) Press kit on computer disc: easy to update, interactive, adding creative features, photo, cost less on postage, small,
(2) Electronic Brochures on CD: higher return rate and higher viewing rate,
(3) On-line Services: million subscribers, confidential e-mail, overnight mail.
(4) In-house Bulletin Boards: customer and media can tap into the information library day and night.
(5) Sales Promotion: creating a screen saver or an animated greeting card, holiday recipes.
What is corporate communication:
Total corporate efforts to communicate effective and profitable. Any corporate take to achieve that goal depends on the character of the organization and its relationship with its supplier, customers, and employee. In planning-strategic tool for competitors, managers use it to lead, motivate, persuade and inform employees and public.
What areas of corporate communications might a marketing major go to work
a. Government Relations: federal state, local, minorities, legislation, lobbies for or against, provides the company’s response to regulation issues.
b. Investor Relations: serve the finance, investment, and stockholders, publics.
c. Media Relations: designated company, spokespersons liaison between the company and the media.
d. Customer Relations: Providing assistance and solutions to problems that customers have with products.
e. Employee Relations: Communicating with and training employees on company culture, practice, measuring, employee moral, designing channel programs.
f. Community Relations: communicating/dealing with citizens and groups of social, racial, or ethnic minorities.
g. Industry Relations: Communicating/dealing with the other players in the company’s industry. Responding for the company to the industry issues.