"The Indians who once held all the land in America, retain only about 200,000 square miles. The whites, who started out with no land at all, now hold about three million square miles. The first of 370 treaties between the United States and Indian tribes was signed in 1778 - The last was signed in 1868. In 1871 Congress declared that the U.S. would no longer view Indian tribes as separate nations and would sign no more treaties."


September 8, 1815

A Treaty between the United States of America and the Wyandot, Delaware, Seneca, Shawanoe, Miami, Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatimie, Tribes of Indians, residing within the limits of the State of Ohio, and the Territories of Indiana and Michigan.

WHEREAS the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatimie, tribes of Indians, together with certain bands of the Wyandot, Delaware, Seneca, Shawanoe, and Miami tribes, were associated with Great Britain in the late war between the United States and that power, and have manifested a disposition to be restored to the relations of peace and amity with the said States; and the President of the United States having appointed William Henry Harrison, late a Major General in the service of the United States, Duncan McArthur, late a Brigadier in the service of the United States, and John Graham, Esquire, as Commissioners to meet with the said tribes; the said Commissioners and Sachem, Headmen, and Warriors, of said tribes having met in council at the Spring Wells, near the city of Detroit, have agreed to the following Articles,which, when ratified by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, shall be binding on them and the said tribes.

ARTICLE 1: The United States give peace to the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatimie, tribes.

ARTICLE 2: They also agree to restore to the said Chippewa, Ottawa. and Potawatimie tribes all the possessions, rights, and privileges, which they enjoyed, or were entitled to, in the year one thousand eight hundred and eleven, prior to the commencement of the late war with Great Britain; and the said tribes, upon their part, agree again to place themselves under the protection of the United States, and of no other powere whatsoever.

ARTICLE 3: In consideration of the fidelity to the United States which has been manifested by the Wyandot, Delaware, Seneca, and Shawanoe, tribes, throughout the late war, and of the repentance of the Miami tribe, as manifested by placing themselves under the protection of the United States, by the Treaty of Greenville, in eighteen hundred and fourteen, the said United States agree to pardon such chiefs and warriors of said tribes as may have continued hostilities against them until the close of the war with Great Britain, and to permit the chiefs of their respective tribes to restore them to the stations and property which they held previously to the war.

ARTICLE 4: The United States and the before mentioned tribes or nations of Indians, that is to say, the Wyandot, Delaware, Seneca, Shawanoe, Miami, Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatimies, agree to renew and confirm the Treaty of Greenville, made in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five, and all subsequent treaties to which they were, respectively, parties, and the same are hereby again ratified and confirmed in as full a manner as if they were inserted in this treaty.

Done at Spring Wells, the eighth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifteen, and of the independence of the United States, the fortieth. In testimony whereof, they, the said commissioners, and the sachems, head men and warriors of the different tribes, have hereunto set their hands, and affixed their seals.

William Henry Harrison,
Duncan McArthur,
John Graham.

Wyandot chiefs:
Tarhee, or Crane, his x mark,
Harrouyeou, or Cherokee Boy, his x mark,
Sanohskee, or Long House, his x mark,
Outoctutimoh, or Cub, his x mark,
Myecruh, or Walk In The Water, his x mark,
Tyanumka, his x mark,
Mymehamkee, or Barnett, his x mark.

Shawanoe chiefs:
Cutaweskeshah, or Black Hoof, his x mark,
Nutsheway, or Wolf's Brother, his x mark,
Tamenatha, or Butler, his x mark,
Shemenetoo, or Big Snake, his x mark,
Outhowwaheshegath, or Yellow Plume, his x mark,
Quatawwepay, or Captain Lewis, his x mark,
Mishquathree, or Captain Reed, his x mark,
Tecumtequah, his x mark.

Ottawa chiefs:
Tontegenah, or The Dog, his x mark,
Tashcuygon, or McArthur, his x mark,
Okemas, or Little Chief, his x mark,
Nashkemah, his x mark,
Watashnewah, his x mark,
Onqunogesh, or Ugly Fellow, his x mark,
Menitugawboway, or The Devil Standing, his x mark,
Kelystum, or First Actor, his x mark.

Ottawas from Mackinack:
Kemenechagon, or The Bastard, his x mark,
Karbenequane, or The One Who Went In Front, his x mark.

A Winnebago from Mackinack:
Wassachum, or First To Start The Whites, his x mark.

Chippewa chiefs:
Papnescha, or Turn Round About, his x mark,
Nowgeschick, or Twelve O'Clock, his x mark,
Shamanetoo, or God Almighty, his x mark,
Wissenesoh, his x mark,
Cacheonquet, or Big Cloud, his x mark,
Pasheskiskaquashcum, his x mark,
Menactome, or The Little Fly, his x mark,
Enewame, or Crow, his x mark,
Nauaquaoto, his x mark,
Paanassee, or The Bird, his x mark.

Delaware chiefs:
Toctowayning, or Anderson, his x mark,
Lamahtanoquez, his x mark,
Matahoopan, his x mark,
Aaheppan, or The Buck, his x mark,
Jim Killbuck,his x mark,
Captain Beaver, his x mark,
McDonald, his x mark.

Seneca chiefs:
Tahummindoyeh, or Between Words, his x mark,
Yonundankykueurent, or John Harris, his x mark,
Masomea, or Civil John, his x mark,
Saccorawahtah, or Whipping Stick, his x mark.

Potawatimie chiefs:
Topeeneebee, his x mark,
Nonngeesai, or Five Medals, his x mark,
Naynauawsekaw, his x mark,
Joeeonce, his x mark,
Cocneg, his x mark,
Ohshawkeebee, his x mark,
Waineamaygoas, his x mark,
Meeksawbay, his x mark,
Mongaw, his x mark,
Nawnawmee, his x mark,
Chay Chauk, or The Crane, his x mark,
Wanaunaiskee, his x mark,
Pashapow, his x mark,
Honkemani, or The Chief, his x mark,
Neesscatimeneemay, his x mark,
Ponngeasais, his x mark,
Nounnawkeskawaw, his x mark,
Chickawno, his x mark,
Mitteeay, his x mark,
Meesseecawee, his x mark,
Neepoashe, his x mark,
Kaitchaynee, his x mark,
Waymeego, or Harrison, his x mark,
Loiuson, his x mark,
Osheouskeebee, his x mark.

Miami chiefs:
Pacan, his x mark,
Singomesha, or The Owl, his x mark,
Totanag, or The Butterfly, his x mark,
Osage, or The Neutral, his x mark,
Wabsioung, or The White Skin, his x mark,
Wapaassabina, or White Racoon, his x mark,
Otteutaqua, or A Blower of His Breath, his x mark,
Makatasabina, or Black Racoon, his x mark,
Wapeshesa, or White Appearance in the Water, his x mark,
Motosamea, or Indian, his x mark,
Shacanbe, his x mark,
Shequar, or The Poor Racoon, his x mark,
Cartanquar, or The Sky, his x mark,
Okemabenaseh, or The King Bird, his x mark,
Wapenaseme, or The Collector of Birds, his x mark,
Mecinabee, or The Setting Stone, his x mark,
Annawba, his x mark,
Mashepesheewingqua, or Tiger's Face, his x mark.

Signed in the presence of:
A. L. Langhan, secretary to the commission,
Lewis Cass,
James Miller, Brig. General U.S.Army,
Willoughby Morgan, Major U.S.Army,
A. B. Woodward,
Hy. B. Brevoort, late Major Forty-fifth Infantry,
John Bidder, Captain U.S. Corps Artillery,
James May, J.P.,
Peter Audrain, Reg. L.O.D.,
Jn. K. Walker, Wyandot interpreter,
Francis Jansen,
James Riley, interpreter,
William Kingg,
Francois Mouton,
John Kenzie, interpreter,
F. Duchouquet, United States interpreter,
W., Louis Bufait, Indian interpreter,
J. Bts. Chandonnai, interpreter,
W. Knaggs, Antoine Bondi,
Jean Bt. Massac, his x mark.

"Treaty of 1817" [ "Treaty of 1786"

"Treaty of Greenville" [ "Treaty of 1805"

"The Paris Peace Treaty"..United States/Great Britain

"Shawnee's Reservation" [ "Homepage"

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